Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, Ras

Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct,.mw-parser-output .geo-inline-hidden{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}43°09′40″N 20°31′37″E / 43.16111°N 20.52694°E / 43.16111; 20.52694
Orthodox church in Novi Pazar, Serbia

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Church of the Holy Apostles
Peter and Paul
Црква Светих апостола Петра и Павла
Crkva Svetih apostola Petra i Pavla

The Church and gravestones
Religion
Affiliation Serbian Orthodox
Rite Byzantine Rite
Location
Location Novi Pazar, Serbia
Architecture
Style Early Byzantine
Completed 9th century
(4th century foundation)
Dome(s) 1
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii
Designated 1979 (3rd)
Parent listing Stari Ras and Sopoćani
Reference no. 96
Region Europe and North America
Official name: Petrova crkva
Type Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance
Designated 1979
Reference no. SK 182

The Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul (Serbian: Црква Светих апостола Петра и Павла / Crkva Svetih apostola Petra i Pavla), commonly known as Church of St Peter (Црква Светог Петра / Crkva Svetog Petra) or simply Peter’s Church (Петрова црква / Petrova crkva) is a Serbian Orthodox church, the oldest intact church in Serbia and one of the oldest ones in the region, situated on a hill of Ras, the medieval capital of the Serbian Grand Principality (Rascia), in Novi Pazar, Serbia. It is part of the Stari Ras complex, an UNESCO World Heritage Site.[1]

It was founded in the 4th century during Roman rule,[citation needed] while additions were made in the 7th and 9th centuries, after which it served as the ecclesiastical seat of the Serbian church, and as the baptismal church and state council site of the Nemanjić dynasty, until the last years of the 12th century. It is dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul.

History[edit]

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Early[edit]

The exact date of founding is unknown; it is mentioned in the 9th century as the seat of the eparchy of Serbia (see Eparchy of Ras). Excavations on the site have unearthed Greek sculptures and Black-figure pottery dating to 7th and 6th century BC, as well as a 5th-century BC princely grave (with regalia, robes, gold-silver jewelry, masks, beads and Attic pottery), underneath the floor of the church in 1957–58.[2][3] The findings are presently at the National Museum of Serbia, in Belgrade. Roman, Byzantine and medieval Slavic tombs surround the church.[3]

The present church has been built on several earlier churches of which remains have been well preserved. The foundation of the church, the massive columns, ground-plan and the octagonal tower which conceals an inner cupola are examples of the circular mausoleal architectural type used after Emperor Constantine (306–312).[1]

Archaeological findings point that the church has been rebuilt several times in history, beginning in the 4th century, with notable additions made in the 7th century. The architectural style resembles that of early churches in Pomorje, Armenia, Georgia, and Italy, dated to between the 7th and 9th centuries.[citation needed] Whether there was a Byzantine sanctuary on the site of the church is a matter of scholarly dispute and that “traces of Early Byzantine architecture or traces from that epoch in general, were not recorded around Petrova crkva”.[4]

Middle Ages[edit]

The Church and old graveyard.
The Church

The Eparchy of Ras was founded near the political center at Ras, today near city of Novi Pazar on the Ibar river.[5] Ras itself originates from Latin Arsa via metathesis.[6][7]

The foundation of the episcopy which centre was this church can be dated to the first half of the 10th century.[8] The imperial charter of Basil II from 1020 to the Archbishopric of Ohrid, in which the rights and jurisdictions were established, mentions that the Episcopy of Ras belonged to the Bulgarian autocephal church during the time of Peter I (927–969) and Samuel of Bulgaria (977–1014).[9][10] The episcopy was of a small size.[8] It is considered that it was possibly founded by the Bulgarian emperor,[11][12] or it is the latest date when could have been integrated to the Bulgarian Church.[13] If previously existed, it probably was part of the Bulgarian metropolis of Morava, but certainly not of Durrës.[14] If it was on the Serbian territory, seems that the Church in Serbia or part of the territory of Serbia became linked and influenced by the Bulgarian Church between 870 and 924.[15][16][17] Anyway, the church would have been protected by Bulgarian controlled forts.[18]

By the mid-12th century, after constant conflicts between the Bulgarians, Byzantines and Serbs, the area of Ras was finally conquered and controlled by the Serbs, who greatly renovated it hence becoming centre of defence and residency for the Serbian Principality.[19] Sometime before 1163, Stefan Nemanja, then only a Župan, was baptized in the church. In 1166, Stefan Nemanja acquired the throne of Serbia with the title of Grand Župan. He was married in the church (to Ana); their two sons, Rastko (later known as Saint Sava; l. 1175–1235), and Stefan Nemanjić, were baptized in the church. Stefan Nemanja held the council that outlawed the Bogumils at the church.[1]

Rastko left Serbia in 1192 for Mount Athos, where he took monastic vows and was given the name Sava.[20][21] Stefan Nemanja abdicated in 1195, crowning Stefan Nemanjić (r. 1196–1228) at the Church of Peter, then joined his son Sava on Mount Athos. The father and son soon asked the Holy Community for the establishment of the Serbian religious base at the abandoned Hilandar, which they renovated, marking the beginning of cultural prospering (in arts; literature, and religion).[citation needed]

The ancient cell of Helandaris was donated by Emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195-1203) “to the Serbs as an eternal gift…” and Stefan Nemanja establishes and endows the monastery in 1198 (before 13 February 1199).[22]

Nemanja died at Hilandar in 1199, while Sava continued his work in establishing the Serbian church.[20] Henceforth, the Church of Peter ends its service as the seat of the Serbian church. Sava crowned his brother Stefan as “King of Serbia” in 1217. Upon returning to Mount Athos, Sava is consecrated as the first Archbishop of the Serbian church, given autocephaly by Patriarch Manuel I of Constantinople, in 1219, the same year he published the first constitution in Serbia – St. Sava’s Nomocanon (Zakonopravilo in Serbian).[23][24] After the Nemanjić era, not much is mentioned about the church. The church frescoes date to the 10th, 12th and 13th centuries, while some frescoes were repainted in the mid-13th century.[3]

Panorama picture of the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul.

Early modern[edit]

After the Ottoman conquest in 1455, the church was not abandoned and is referenced throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1690, the Church is abandoned and the region is largely depopulated amid Ottoman atrocities in Kosovo, amid the Great Turkish War in which Serb rebels fought on the side of the Holy League. Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević leads tens of thousands of Serb families to the Christian north.[citation needed]

Metropolitan Arsenije IV Jovanović Šakabenta restored the church in 1728. During the 18th century, the church had the rank of Metropolitanate, and after 1784, the Eparchy of Raška is organized into the Eparchy of Prizren. In the 1830s, the church is built on and restored. Shortly thereafter, the Ottomans took over the church and use it as an ammunition magazine. Since the First Balkan War (1912), it has been a functioning church.[citation needed]

Contemporary[edit]

Conservatory work was done in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The Stari Ras-complex, including the church and Sopoćani, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979, the church itself was included due to its uniqueness as one of the oldest churches in the region. It is designated a Cultural Heritage Site of Serbia (the national heritage list), of the Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance type.[citation needed]

The church’s walls were defaced with graffiti on 6 April 2008. The police have not officially concluded who perpetrated the act or why.[25]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Other oldest churches

References[edit]

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  1. ^ a b c Bradt, Serbia [page needed]
  2. ^ Trebenishte: the fortunes of an unusual excavation – M. Stibbe, Rastko Vasić [page needed]
  3. ^ a b c .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free.id-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited.id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration.id-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription.id-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}“Panacomp – the Church of St. Apostles Peter and Paul”. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  4. ^ Popović 1999, p. 297, 399.
  5. ^ The entry of the Slavs into Christendom, p. 208
  6. ^ Popović 1999, p. 37.
  7. ^ Bulić 2013, p. 216.
  8. ^ a b Popović 1999, p. 38.
  9. ^ Komatina 2015, pp. 717.
  10. ^ Komatina 2016, pp. 76, 89–90.
  11. ^ Popović 1999, p. 401.
  12. ^ Ćirković 2004, pp. 20, 30.
  13. ^ Komatina 2016, pp. 76–77.
  14. ^ Komatina 2016, pp. 75, 88–91.
  15. ^ Komatina 2015, pp. 717–718.
  16. ^ Komatina 2016, pp. 77, 91.
  17. ^ Špehar 2010, pp. 203, 216.
  18. ^ Špehar 2019, p. 122.
  19. ^ Popović 1999, p. 38, 299–306, 402.
  20. ^ a b Đuro Šurmin, Povjest književnosti hrvatske i srpske, 1808, p. 229
  21. ^ The entry of the Slavs into Christendom, p. 218
  22. ^ Tibor Zivkovic – Charters of the Serbian rulers related to Kosovo and Metochia, p. 15
  23. ^ Petarzoric (PDF), Alan Watson, archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2011
  24. ^ p. 118
  25. ^ “Oldest Orthodox church in Balkans (Serbian Orthodox Church) defaced”. Spc.rs. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2014.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct,.mw-parser-output .geo-inline-hidden{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}43°09′40″N 20°31′37″E / 43.16111°N 20.52694°E / 43.16111; 20.52694