Primo Carnera

Italian boxer and professional wrestler (1906–1967)

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Primo Carnera

Carnera
Born (1906-10-26)26 October 1906

Sequals, Italy
Died 29 June 1967(1967-06-29) (aged 60)

Sequals, Italy
Nationality .mw-parser-output .plainlist ol,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul{line-height:inherit;list-style:none;margin:0;padding:0}.mw-parser-output .plainlist ol li,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul li{margin-bottom:0}

  • Italian
  • American
Other names
  • Da Preem
  • The Ambling Alp
  • The Gentle Giant
  • The Vast Venetian
Statistics
Weight(s)
Height 6 ft 6 in (198 cm)
Reach 85 in (216 cm)
Stance Orthodox
Boxing record
Total fights 103;[1] with the inclusion of newspaper decisions
Wins 89
Wins by KO 72
Losses 14

Primo Carnera (.mw-parser-output .IPA-label-small{font-size:85%}.mw-parser-output .references .IPA-label-small,.mw-parser-output .infobox .IPA-label-small,.mw-parser-output .navbox .IPA-label-small{font-size:100%}Italian pronunciation: [ˈpriːmo karˈnɛːra];[2] 26 October 1906 – 29 June 1967), nicknamed the Ambling Alp, was an Italian professional boxer and wrestler who reigned as the boxing World Heavyweight Champion from 29 June 1933 to 14 June 1934. He won more fights by knockout than any other heavyweight champion (IBU, NBA, NYSAC) in boxing history.

Personal life[edit]

Carnera with family receiving dual citizenship in August 1953

Primo Carnera was born in Sequals, then in the Province of Udine, now in the Province of Pordenone, Friuli Venezia Giulia at the north-easternmost corner of Italy.[3]

On 13 March 1939, Carnera married Giuseppina Kovačič (1913–1980), a post office clerk from Gorizia.[4] In 1953, they received dual citizenship. They settled in Los Angeles, where Carnera opened a restaurant and a liquor store. They had two children, Umberto and Giovanna Maria. Umberto became a medical doctor.[5] Carnera died in 1967 at age 60 in his native town of a combination of liver disease and complications from diabetes.[6]

Professional boxing career[edit]

Overview[edit]

Carnera was touted in America as being 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) tall, and thus the tallest heavyweight in history (up until that time), but he was actually 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) tall.[7] He fought at as much as 275 pounds (125 kg).[8] Jess Willard who stood 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) was the tallest world heavyweight champion in boxing history until Nikolai Valuev, at 7 ft 0 in (2.13 m) and 328 pounds (149 kg). Though an inch (2.5 cm) shorter than Willard, Carnera was around 40 lb (18 kg) heavier and was the heaviest champion in boxing history until Valuev.[9]

At a time when the average height in Italy was approximately 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m) and in the United States 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m),[10] Carnera was considered a giant.

He enjoyed a sizable reach advantage over most rivals, and when seen on fight footage, he seems like a towering giant compared to many heavyweights of his era, who were usually at least 60 pounds (27 kg) lighter and 7 inches (18 cm) shorter. One publicity release about him read in part: “For breakfast, Primo has a quart of orange juice, two quarts of milk, nineteen pieces of toast, fourteen eggs, a loaf of bread and half a pound of Virginia ham.”[11] His size earned him the nickname “The Ambling Alp”.[12] Time magazine called him “The Monster”.[13]

Primo Carnera silent newsreel 1933

Starting career[edit]

12 September 1928 was the date of Carnera’s first professional fight, against Leon Sebilo, in Paris. Carnera won by knockout in round two.[14] He won his first six bouts, then lost to Franz Diener by disqualification in round one at Leipzig. Then, he won seven more bouts in a row before meeting Young Stribling. He and Stribling exchanged disqualification wins, Carnera winning the first in four rounds, and Stribling winning the rematch in round seven. In Carnera’s next bout he avenged his defeat to Diener with a knockout in round six.[15]

In 1930, he moved to the United States, where he toured extensively, winning his first seventeen bouts there by knockout. George Godfrey broke the knockout streak in Philadelphia by losing to Carnera by disqualification in the fifth round.[16] In 1932, Carnera faced the tallest heavyweight in history up to that point, Santa Camarão, a 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m) Portuguese fighter. Carnera won the fight in a sixth-round knockout.[17]

Carnera training c. 1934

On 10 February 1933, he knocked out Ernie Schaaf in thirteen rounds in New York City. Schaaf died four days later.[18] Schaaf had suffered a severe beating and knockout in a bout with future heavyweight champion Max Baer six months earlier, on 31 August 1932. Furthermore, an autopsy revealed that Schaaf had meningitis, a swelling of the brain, and was still recovering from a severe case of influenza when he entered the ring with Carnera.[19][20]

World Heavyweight Champion[edit]

For his next fight, Carnera faced the world heavyweight champion, Jack Sharkey, on June 29, at the Madison Square Garden Bowl in Queens, New York. Carnera became world champion by knocking out Sharkey in round six.[21] He retained the title against Paulino Uzcudun and Tommy Loughran, both by decision in 15 rounds.

In his next fight on 14 June 1934 against Max Baer, Carnera was knocked down multiple times in 11 rounds before referee Arthur Donovon stopped the fight. There is disagreement regarding how many times Carnera was knocked down, with sources giving conflicting totals of 7, 10, 11 (per Associated Press) and 12 (per The Ring magazine founder Nat Fleischer, ringside for the fight, who wrote that Carnera was knocked down 12 times and slipped once after a missed punch).[22] Carnera also fractured his right ankle in the defeat.[23]

A statue of the defeated Carnera won the Prix de Rome First Prize in 1934. L’Athlète vaincu by Albert Bouquillon.[24]

After defeat[edit]

After that, Carnera won his next four fights, three of them as part of a South American tour that took him to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, as well as two exhibitions fought on the South American continent. But then, on 25 June 1935, he was knocked out in six rounds by Joe Louis.

For the next two and a half years, he won five and lost three of eight total fights. In 1938 Carnera, a diabetic, had to have a kidney removed, which forced him into retirement by 1944.[4] Carnera’s record was 89 wins and 14 losses. His 72 wins by knockout made him a member of the exclusive club of boxers that won 50 or more bouts by knockout.

Legacy in boxing[edit]

Carnera was the third European to hold the world heavyweight championship after Bob Fitzsimmons and Max Schmeling. He would be the last until Ingemar Johansson claimed the title against Floyd Patterson in 1959, over a quarter of a century later.

Carnera was also the first boxer to win the European Heavyweight title and subsequently become World Heavyweight champion.

Carnera’s 1933 title defense against Tommy Loughran held the record for the greatest weight differential between two combatants in a world title fight (86 lb or 39 kg)[25] for 73 years until the reign of Nikolai Valuev, who owns the current record for the .mw-parser-output .frac{white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output .frac .num,.mw-parser-output .frac .den{font-size:80%;line-height:0;vertical-align:super}.mw-parser-output .frac .den{vertical-align:sub}.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);clip-path:polygon(0px 0px,0px 0px,0px 0px);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px}105+12 lb (47.9 kg) weight advantage he held in his 2006 defense against Monte Barrett.

Valuev also broke Carnera’s record of 270 lb (120 kg) to become the heaviest world champion in history, weighing as high as 328 lb (149 kg) during his reign. Carnera still ranks as the fourth-heaviest, behind Valuev, Tyson Fury and Andy Ruiz Jr., over eighty years after he held the title.[9]

Carnera’s 1933 title defense against Paulino Uzcudun in Italy was the first Heavyweight title fight to be held in Europe since Jack Johnson‘s title defence against Frank Moran in Paris in 1913. It would be the last such occasion until Muhammad Ali defended the title against Henry Cooper in London in 1966. Carnera-Uzcudun was the first World Heavyweight championship fight to be contested between two Europeans. It would be another sixty years, when Lennox Lewis defended the WBC heavyweight title against fellow-Englishman Frank Bruno in 1993, that this would occur again.

Carnera’s 72 career knockouts is the most of any world heavyweight champion (IBU, NBA, NYSAC).[26]

His long term manager, Leon See noted how Carnera could not absorb a hard punch on the chin, pre-arranging with opponents (and sparring partners) not to hit him on the chin. His management team took the vast majority of Carnera’s earnings leaving him with practically nothing.[27]

Acting career[edit]

Carnera and Audrey Dalton in Casanova’s Big Night (1954)

Carnera appeared in a short film in 1931. During his tenure as world champion he played a fictional version of himself in the 1933 film The Prizefighter and the Lady starring Max Baer and Myrna Loy. Here he plays the heavyweight champion who barely holds onto his title with a draw decision after a furious fight with Baer. The film was made just a year before Carnera fought Baer for real, in a bout that was as wild as the film version, but ended with a knockout loss for Carnera.[28]

Carnera had a bit part in the 1949 movie Mighty Joe Young.[28] He played himself in the tug-of-war scene with the giant gorilla. After being pulled by the ape into a pool of water, Carnera threw a couple of futile punches to Joe’s chin.

He also played a bully boy wrestler in Carol Reed‘s A Kid for Two Farthings (1955). Set in London’s Petticoat Lane Market, the film pits Carnera’s character against a local bodybuilder who is to marry another character named Sonia, played by Diana Dors.

Primo appeared in at least ten Italian films between 1939 and 1943,[29] as well as several in the 1950s, like Prince Valiant,[30] in the role of Sligon. His last screen role was as the giant Antaeus alongside Steve Reeves in Hercules Unchained (US title, filmed in Italy, 1959, original title Ercole e la regina di Lidia).[31]

Professional wrestling career[edit]

In 1945 he temporarily returned to boxing and won two fights. But the next year, after three losses against Luigi Musina his talent for wrestling was discovered. In 1946 he became a professional wrestler and was immediately a huge success at the box office. For several years he was one of the top draws in wrestling. Carnera continued to be an attraction into the 1960s. Max Baer attended at least one of Carnera’s wrestling matches.[32]

Carnera won his debut against Jules Strongbow in Wilmington, California on 20 August 1946. Two days later, he defeated Tommy O’Toole at the Grand Olympic Auditorium before 10,000 fans.[33] On 23 October 1946, Carnera won his 41st consecutive wrestling match by defeating Jules Strongbow.[34] On 19 November 1946, Carnera beat Harry Kruskamp to remain undefeated at 65–0–0. Primo Carnera went 120 straight wrestling matches undefeated (119–0–1) before suffering his first loss to Yvon Robert in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, on 20 August 1947. Carnera’s greatest victory took place on 7 December 1947 when he defeated former world heavyweight champion Ed “Strangler” Lewis.

In May 1948, Carnera took a 143–1–1 record against world heavyweight champion Lou Thesz. Thesz defeated Carnera in a world title defense.

Mob influence and suspicious matches[edit]

Carnera in 1955

According to boxing historian Herbert Goldman, Carnera was “very much mob controlled.”[35] His contract was purchased by mobster Owney Madden after Carnera’s arrival in New York in 1930. Abe Attell was brought in to train Carnera. Attell had been caught up in the Black Sox Scandal. However Attell was acquitted when he successfully convinced the jury that he was the wrong Abe Attell.[36]

Carnera met his first serious heavyweight contender, Young Stribling, in 1929, and won when Stribling fouled him. In a rematch, he fouled Stribling. Each scoring a victory by disqualification. Commenting on the unsatisfactory conclusion of the two matches, sportswriter Robert Edgren commented “Stribling seems to be playing Carnera the way he has played a lot of palukas and stable mates at different towns in “the sticks” in this country. Always the return engagement.”[37]

In January 1930 against Big Boy Peterson, Carnera won easily in the 1st round. The New York Times noted the absence of betting on the outcome causing skepticism prior to the match. Peterson was counted out while punching himself in the jaw. “Whether to make sure he was knocked out or in an effort to restore his jarred senses could not be ascertained.” Boxing Commissioner James Farley, watching ringside, “was not altogether satisfied with the contest” but did not launch an investigation.[38]

A week later against Elzear Rioux the fight lasted only 47 seconds and Rioux was down 6 times. Bob Soderman of the Chicago Tribune reported, “Rioux didn’t do much fighting..being too intent on doing what he had been hired to do; that is, making sure he fell to the canvas at the slightest provocation.” After an investigation, the Illinois Boxing Commission cleared Carnera but fined Rioux $1000 and revoked his license.[1]

In March, 1930, Primo Carnera faced George Trafton in Kansas City. Trafton was knocked out by Carnera in the first round of their fight.[39] In the aftermath of the fight, the Missouri Boxing Commission suspended Trafton but laid no blame on Carnera.[40]

His April 1930 fight against California club fighter Bombo Chevalier ended when one of Chevalier’s seconds, Bob Perry, threw in the towel, although it appeared to all that the boxer was in no worse condition than Carnera. The match was found to be fixed, Carnera’s purse was initially withheld.[41] Mrs. Chevalier told them her husband had been approached earlier to agree to a “fake fight,” but that he had directed all business to his manager, Tim McGrath. McGrath declared he had no knowledge that Perry was going to throw in the towel, and that the towel should not have been thrown in.[1] Chevalier also stated that Perry had rubbed him with a sponge that caused his eyes and nose to burn.[42]

In May 1930 the National Boxing Association suspended Carnera.[43]

His June 1930 match against George Godfrey was controversial before it began. Seconds were forbidden from throwing in the towel.[44] Godfrey was disqualified in the fifth round when he was clearly getting the better of Carnera.[45][46] In the aftermath, Godfrey lost his boxing license and half his purse, Carnera was cleared.[47]

Time magazine, in a 5 October 1931 cover story on Carnera before he won the heavyweight title, commented on his odd career:[48]

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 32px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

Since his arrival in the US, backed by a group of prosperous but shady entrepreneurs, Carnera’s career has been less glorious than fantastic. His first opponents—Big Boy Peterson, Elzear Rioux, Cowboy Owens—were known to be incompetent but their feeble opposition to Carnera suggested that they had been bribed to lose. Suspicion concerning the Monster’s abilities became almost universal when another adversary, Bombo Chevalier, stated that one of his own seconds had threatened to kill him unless he lost to Carnera. Against the huge, lazy, amiable George Godfrey (249 lb), he won on a foul. But only one of 33 US opponents has defeated Monster Carnera—fat, slovenly Jimmy Maloney, whom Sharkey beat five years ago. In a return fight, at Miami last March, Carnera managed to outpoint Maloney.

Depictions in popular culture[edit]

Carnera holding a reporter for a close-up shot in 1933

In film[edit]

Requiem for a Heavyweight, Rod Serling‘s 1956 Emmy Award-winning teleplay for Playhouse 90 directed by Ralph Nelson (who also won an Emmy), focused on down-and-out former heavyweight boxer Harlan “Mountain” McClintock. The travails of McClintock, who was played by Jack Palance (Sean Connery played the part on British television and Anthony Quinn essayed the role in the 1962 film), was thought by many boxing fans to resemble Carnera’s life.[49]

In 1947, fighting aficionado Budd Schulberg wrote The Harder They Fall, a novel about a giant boxer whose fights are fixed. It was adapted into Mark Robson‘s 1956 film, which starred Humphrey Bogart and Rod Steiger. A highlight was the appearance of Max Baer, playing a fighter the mob could not fix who destroys the giant in his first fair fight. Critics drew parallels with the real-life Baer-Carnera fight two decades before. In response, Carnera unsuccessfully sued the film’s company.

Carnera played himself in the 1949 movie Mighty Joe Young.

Carnera was played by Matthew G. Taylor in the 2005 film Cinderella Man, a film about the life of fellow boxer James J. Braddock.

In 2008, the actor Andrea Iaia played Carnera in the Italian biographical film Carnera: The Walking Mountain, directed by Renzo Martinelli.

In 2013, Emporio Elaborazioni Meccaniche named a motorbike, the 1983 BMW R80RT Carnera, in honor of Carnera.[50]

In comics[edit]

In 1947, Carnera, an Italian comic book series sporting a fictional version of Primo Carnera, was produced.[51] In 1953, it was translated into German.[52] A facsimile version was published in 2010.[53]

Another popular Italian comic character, Dick Fulmine, was graphically inspired by Carnera.[51]

In literature[edit]

Carnera is mentioned by Bertie Wooster in the 1934 novel Right Ho, Jeeves, by P.G. Wodehouse on p. 234.

In his 1933 collection of short stories Mulliner Nights, Wodehouse described one character as follows: “He was built on large lines, and seemed to fill the room to overflowing. In physique he was not unlike what Primo Carnera would have been if Carnera hadn’t stunted his growth by smoking cigarettes when a boy.”[54]

Carrera’s fight with Walter Neusel is described in One-storied America by Soviet authors Ilf and Petrov (1937).

Carnera is mentioned by Julian “Digger” Burroughs in the 1982 novel Lucifer’s Weekend, by Warren Murphy on p. 81.[55]

Carnera is mentioned in the 1937 novel, The Far Distant Oxus, by Katharine Hull and Pamela Whitlock, during Bridget’s dream where their servant was a cross between ‘their waterboy out east and Carnera’ on p. 274.

Carnera is mentioned in the 1939 pulp fiction story series Avenger #1 Justice Inc, by Kenneth Robeson on page 59, as an example of a “giant” as the author attempts to describe the physical stature of Algernon Smith – one of Richard Benjamin’s future crime fighting allies.

In music[edit]

Carnera is mentioned in Cambalache, a 1934 tango song by Enrique Santos Discépolo that was featured in the musical drama film The Soul of the Accordion.

The Yeasayer song Ambling Alp, from their 2010 album Odd Blood references Carnera by his nickname in the title and second verse. Both Carnera and German boxer Max Schmeling are referenced for their bouts with American Joe Louis.

Professional boxing record[edit]

All information in this section is derived from BoxRec,[1] unless otherwise stated.

Official record[edit]

104 fights 89 wins 14 losses
By knockout 72 5
By decision 15 7
By disqualification 2 2
Newspaper decisions/draws 1

All newspaper decisions are officially regarded as “no decision” bouts and are not counted in the win/loss/draw column.

No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Location Notes
103 Loss 88–14 (1) Luigi Musina UD 10 19 May 1946 Gorizia, Italy
102 Loss 88–13 (1) Luigi Musina PTS 8 19 Mar 1946 Trieste, Italy
101 Loss 88–12 (1) Luigi Musina TKO 7 (8) 21 Nov 1945 Milan, Italy
100 Win 88–11 (1) Sam Gardner KO 1 (4) 25 Sep 1945 San Sabba Stadium, Trieste, Italy
99 Win 87–11 (1) Michel Blevens KO 3 (4) 22 Jul 1945 Moretti Stadium, Udine, Italy
98 Win 86–11 (1) Josip Zupan KO 2 (10) 4 Dec 1937 Budapest Zirkus, Budapest, Hungary
97 Loss 85–11 (1) Albert Di Meglio PTS 10 18 Nov 1937 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
96 Loss 85–10 (1) Leroy Haynes TKO 9 (10), 0:40 27 May 1936 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
95 Loss 85–9 (1) Leroy Haynes TKO 3 (10), 0:53 16 Mar 1936 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
94 Win 85–8 (1) Isidoro Gastanaga TKO 5 (10) 6 Mar 1936 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
93 Win 84–8 (1) Big Boy Brackey TKO 4 (10), 1:06 9 Dec 1935 Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
92 Win 83–8 (1) Ford Smith UD 10 25 Nov 1935 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
91 Win 82–8 (1) Walter Neusel TKO 4 (10), 2:23 1 Nov 1935 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
90 Loss 81–8 (1) Joe Louis TKO 6 (15), 2:32 25 Jun 1935 Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S.
89 Win 81–7 (1) Ray Impelletiere TKO 9 (10), 0:38 15 Mar 1935 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
88 Win 80–7 (1) Erwin Klausner KO 6 (12) 22 Jan 1935 Estádio das Laranjeiras, Río de Janeiro, Brazil
87 Win 79–7 (1) Seal Harris KO 7 (10) 13 Jan 1935 Estádio da Floresta, Sao Paulo, Brazil
86 Win 78–7 (1) Victorio Campolo PTS 12 1 Dec 1934 Club Atletico Independiente, Buenos Aires, Argentina
85 Loss 77–7 (1) Max Baer TKO 11 (15), 2:16 14 Jun 1934 Madison Square Garden Bowl, Queens, New York, U.S. Lost NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring heavyweight titles
84 Win 77–6 (1) Tommy Loughran UD 15 1 Mar 1934 Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, Florida, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring heavyweight titles
83 Win 76–6 (1) Paulino Uzcudun UD 15 22 Oct 1933 Piazza di Siena, Rome, Italy Retained The Ring heavyweight title;
Won European and IBU heavyweight titles
82 Win 75–6 (1) Jack Sharkey KO 6 (15), 2:27 29 Jun 1933 Madison Square Garden Bowl, Queens, New York, U.S. Won NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring heavyweight titles
81 Win 74–6 (1) Ernie Schaaf KO 13 (15), 0:51 10 Feb 1933 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Schaaf died from injuries sustained in the fight.[56]
80 Win 73–6 (1) Young Spence KO 1 (10) 30 Dec 1932 Fair Park Arena, Dallas, Texas, U.S.
79 Win 72–6 (1) James Merriott KO 1 (10) 20 Dec 1932 City Auditorium, Galveston, Texas, U.S.
78 Win 71–6 (1) Joe Rice KO 2 (10) 19 Dec 1932 Northside Coliseum, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.
77 Win 70–6 (1) KO Christner KO 4 (10) 15 Dec 1932 City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
76 Win 69–6 (1) Big Boy Peterson TKO 2 (10) 13 Dec 1932 Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
75 Win 68–6 (1) King Levinsky SD 10 9 Dec 1932 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
74 Win 67–6 (1) John Schwake KO 7 (10), 2:16 2 Dec 1932 St. Louis Coliseum, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
73 Win 66–6 (1) José Santa TKO 6 (10) 18 Nov 1932 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
72 Win 65–6 (1) Les Kennedy KO 3 (10) 4 Nov 1932 Boston Arena, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
71 Win 64–6 (1) Jack Taylor KO 2 (10), 1:59 17 Oct 1932 Jefferson County Armory, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
70 Win 63–6 (1) Gene Stanton KO 6 (10) 13 Oct 1932 114th Infantry Armory, Camden, New Jersey, U.S.
69 Win 62–6 (1) Ted Sandwina KO 4 (10) 7 Oct 1932 Benjamin Field Arena, Tampa, Florida, U.S.
68 Win 61–6 (1) Art Lasky NWS 10 1 Sep 1932 St. Paul Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.
67 Win 61–6 Jack Gagnon KO 1 (10), 1:35 19 Aug 1932 Mark’s Stadium, North Tiverton, Rhode Island, U.S.
66 Loss 60–6 Stanley Poreda PTS 10 16 Aug 1932 Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
65 Win 60–5 Hans Birkie UD 10 2 Aug 1932 Queensboro Stadium, Long Island City, New York, U.S
64 Win 59–5 Jerry Pavelec TKO 5 (10), 0:51 28 Jul 1932 Playgrounds Stadium, West New York, New Jersey, U.S
63 Win 58–5 Jack Gross TKO 7 (10), 2:50 20 Jul 1932 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
62 Loss 57–5 Larry Gains PTS 10 30 May 1932 White City Stadium, London, England
61 Win 57–4 Hans Schönrath TKO 3 (10) 15 May 1932 Stadio San Siro, Milan, Italy
60 Win 56–4 Maurice Griselle TKO 10 (10) 30 Apr 1932 Palais des Sports, Paris, France
59 Win 55–4 Don McCorkindale PTS 10 7 Apr 1932 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
58 Win 54–4 George Cook KO 4 (10) 23 Mar 1932 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
57 Win 53–4 Pierre Charles PTS 10 29 Feb 1932 Palais des Sports, Paris, France
56 Win 52–4 Ernst Gühring TKO 5 (10) 5 Feb 1932 Berlin Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany
55 Win 51–4 Moise Bouquillon TKO 2 (10) 25 Jan 1932 Palais des Sports, Paris, France
54 Win 50–4 Victorio Campolo KO 2 (15), 1:27 27 Nov 1931 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
53 Win 49–4 King Levinsky UD 10 19 Nov 1931 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
52 Loss 48–4 Jack Sharkey UD 15 12 Oct 1931 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S. For ABA Heavyweight title
51 Win 48–3 Armando De Carolis KO 2 (10), 1:08 6 Aug 1931 Shellpot Park, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.
50 Win 47–3 Roberto Roberti TKO 3 (10), 2:25 4 Aug 1931 Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
49 Win 46–3 Knute Hansen KO 1 (10), 2:10 24 Jul 1931 Edgerton Park Arena, Rochester, New York, U.S.
48 Win 45–3 Bud Gorman KO 2 (10), 2:35 30 Jun 1931 Arena Gardens, Toronto, Ontario Canada
47 Win 44–3 Umberto Torriani KO 2 (10), 0:43 26 Jun 1931 Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
46 Win 43–3 Pat Redmond KO 1 (10), 2:24 15 Jun 1931 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
45 Win 42–3 Jim Maloney PTS 10 5 Mar 1931 Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, Florida, U.S.
44 Win 41–3 Reggie Meen TKO 2 (6) 18 Dec 1930 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
43 Win 40–3 Paulino Uzcudun SD 10 30 Nov 1930 Estadio Olímpico de Montjuïc, Barcelona, Spain
42 Loss 39–3 Jim Maloney PTS 10 7 Oct 1930 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
41 Win 39–2 Jack Gross KO 4 (10) 17 Sep 1930 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
40 Win 38–2 Pat McCarthy TKO 2 (10), 1:16 8 Sep 1930 Newark Velodrome, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
39 Win 37–2 Riccardo Bertazzolo TKO 3 (15) 30 Aug 1930 Atlantic City Auditorium, Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.
38 Win 36–2 George Cook KO 2 (10), 1:44 29 Jul 1930 Taylor Bowl, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
37 Win 35–2 Bearcat Wright KO 4 (10), 1:13 17 Jul 1930 League Park, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
36 Win 34–2 George Godfrey DQ 5 (10), 1:13 23 Jun 1930 Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
35 Win 33–2 KO Christner KO 4 (10), 1:20 5 Jun 1930 Michigan State Fairgrounds Coliseum, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
34 Win 32–2 Sam Baker KO 1 (10) 22 Apr 1930 Portland Ice Hippodrome, Portland, Oregon, U.S.
33 Win 31–2 Leon Chevalier TKO 6 (10) 14 Apr 1930 Oakland Baseball Park, Emeryville, California, U.S.
32 Win 30–2 Neil Clisby KO 2 (10), 0:40 8 Apr 1930 Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
31 Win 29–2 Jack McAuliffe II KO 1 (10), 2:18 28 Mar 1930 Stockyards Stadium, Denver, Colorado, U.S.
30 Win 28–2 George Trafton KO 1 (10), 0:54 26 Mar 1930 Convention Hall, Kansas City, Kansas, U.S.
29 Win 27–2 Frank Zaveta KO 1 (10), 1:51 20 Mar 1930 Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.
28 Win 26–2 Chuck Wiggins KO 2 (10) 17 Mar 1930 St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
27 Win 25–2 Sully Montgomery KO 2 (10), 1:15 11 Mar 1930 Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
26 Win 24–2 Roy Clark KO 6 (10), 2:38 3 Mar 1930 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
25 Win 23–2 Farmer Lodge KO 2 (10), 1:22 24 Feb 1930 Heinemann Park, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
24 Win 22–2 Johnny Erickson KO 2 (10), 1:45 17 Feb 1930 Coliseum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.
23 Win 21–2 Jim Sigman KO 1 (8), 1:35 14 Feb 1930 Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
22 Win 20–2 Buster Martin KO 2 (10), 0:56 11 Feb 1930 St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
21 Win 19–2 Cowboy Billy Owens KO 2 (10), 2:22 6 Feb 1930 113th Regiment Armory, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
20 Win 18–2 Elzear Rioux KO 1 (10), 0:47 31 Jan 1930 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
19 Win 17–2 Big Boy Peterson KO 1 (10), 1:10 24 Jan 1930 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
18 Win 16–2 Franz Diener TKO 6 (15) 17 Dec 1929 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
17 Loss 15–2 Young Stribling DQ 7 (10) 7 Dec 1929 Vélodrome d’Hiver, Paris, France
16 Win 15–1 Young Stribling DQ 4 (15) 18 Nov 1929 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
15 Win 14–1 Jack Stanley TKO 1 (8) 17 Oct 1929 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
14 Win 13–1 Hermann Jaspers KO 3 (10) 18 Sep 1929 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
13 Win 12–1 Feodor Nikolaeff KO 1 (10) 30 Aug 1929 Garage de Normandie, Dieppe, France
12 Win 11–1 Joe Thomas TKO 4 (10) 25 Aug 1929 Arènes du Rond-Point du Prado, Marseille, France
11 Win 10–1 Jose Lete UD 10 14 Aug 1929 Estadio Municipal de Atocha, San Sebastián, Spain
10 Win 9–1 Jack Humbeeck TKO 6 (10) 26 Jun 1929 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
9 Win 8–1 Marcel Nilles TKO 3 (10) 30 May 1929 Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
8 Win 7–1 Moise Bouquillon PTS 10 22 May 1929 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
7 Loss 6–1 Franz Diener DQ 1 (10) 28 Apr 1929 Messehalle, Leipzig, Germany
6 Win 6–0 Ernst Roesemann TKO 5 (8) 18 Jan 1929 Berlin Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany
5 Win 5–0 Constant Barrick KO 3 (10) 1 Dec 1928 Vélodrome d’Hiver, Paris, France
4 Win 4–0 Epifanio Islas UD 10 25 Nov 1928 Palazzo dello Sport, Milan, Italy
3 Win 3–0 Salvatore Ruggirello TKO 4 (10) 30 Oct 1928 Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
2 Win 2–0 Joe Thomas KO 3 (10) 25 Sep 1928 Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
1 Win 1–0 Leon Sebilo TKO 2 (10) 12 Sep 1928 Salle Wagram, Paris, France

Unofficial record[edit]

103 fights 89 wins 14 losses
By knockout 72 5
By decision 15 7
By disqualification 2 2

Record with the inclusion of newspaper decisions in the win/loss/draw column.

No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Location Notes
103 Loss 89–14 Luigi Musina UD 10 19 May 1946 Gorizia, Italy
102 Loss 89–13 Luigi Musina PTS 8 19 Mar 1946 Trieste, Italy
101 Loss 89–12 Luigi Musina TKO 7 (8) 21 Nov 1945 Milan, Italy
100 Win 89–11 Sam Gardner KO 1 (4) 25 Sep 1945 San Sabba Stadium, Trieste, Italy
99 Win 88–11 Michel Blevens KO 3 (4) 22 Jul 1945 Moretti Stadium, Udine, Italy
98 Win 87–11 Josip Zupan KO 2 (10) 4 Dec 1937 Budapest Zirkus, Budapest, Hungary
97 Loss 86–11 Albert Di Meglio PTS 10 18 Nov 1937 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
96 Loss 86–10 Leroy Haynes TKO 9 (10), 0:40 27 May 1936 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
95 Loss 86–9 Leroy Haynes TKO 3 (10), 0:53 16 Mar 1936 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
94 Win 86–8 Isidoro Gastanaga TKO 5 (10) 6 Mar 1936 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
93 Win 85–8 Big Boy Brackey TKO 4 (10), 1:06 9 Dec 1935 Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
92 Win 84–8 Ford Smith UD 10 25 Nov 1935 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
91 Win 83–8 Walter Neusel TKO 4 (10), 2:23 1 Nov 1935 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
90 Loss 82–8 Joe Louis TKO 6 (15), 2:32 25 Jun 1935 Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S.
89 Win 82–7 Ray Impelletiere TKO 9 (10), 0:38 15 Mar 1935 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
88 Win 81–7 Erwin Klausner KO 6 (12) 22 Jan 1935 Estádio das Laranjeiras, Río de Janeiro, Brazil
87 Win 80–7 Seal Harris KO 7 (10) 13 Jan 1935 Estádio da Floresta, Sao Paulo, Brazil
86 Win 79–7 Victorio Campolo PTS 12 1 Dec 1934 Club Atletico Independiente, Buenos Aires, Argentina
85 Loss 78–7 Max Baer TKO 11 (15), 2:16 14 Jun 1934 Madison Square Garden Bowl, Queens, New York, U.S. Lost NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring heavyweight titles
84 Win 78–6 Tommy Loughran UD 15 1 Mar 1934 Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, Florida, U.S. Retained NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring heavyweight titles
83 Win 77–6 Paulino Uzcudun UD 15 22 Oct 1933 Piazza di Siena, Rome, Italy Retained The Ring heavyweight title;
Won European and IBU heavyweight titles
82 Win 76–6 Jack Sharkey KO 6 (15), 2:27 29 Jun 1933 Madison Square Garden Bowl, Queens, New York, U.S. Won NYSAC, NBA, and The Ring heavyweight titles
81 Win 75–6 Ernie Schaaf KO 13 (15), 0:51 10 Feb 1933 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Schaaf died from injuries sustained in the fight.[56]
80 Win 74–6 Young Spence KO 1 (10) 30 Dec 1932 Fair Park Arena, Dallas, Texas, U.S.
79 Win 73–6 James Merriott KO 1 (10) 20 Dec 1932 City Auditorium, Galveston, Texas, U.S.
78 Win 72–6 Joe Rice KO 2 (10) 19 Dec 1932 Northside Coliseum, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.
77 Win 71–6 KO Christner KO 4 (10) 15 Dec 1932 City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
76 Win 70–6 Big Boy Peterson TKO 2 (10) 13 Dec 1932 Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
75 Win 69–6 King Levinsky SD 10 9 Dec 1932 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
74 Win 68–6 John Schwake KO 7 (10), 2:16 2 Dec 1932 St. Louis Coliseum, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
73 Win 67–6 José Santa TKO 6 (10) 18 Nov 1932 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
72 Win 66–6 Les Kennedy KO 3 (10) 4 Nov 1932 Boston Arena, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
71 Win 65–6 Jack Taylor KO 2 (10), 1:59 17 Oct 1932 Jefferson County Armory, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.
70 Win 64–6 Gene Stanton KO 6 (10) 13 Oct 1932 114th Infantry Armory, Camden, New Jersey, U.S.
69 Win 63–6 Ted Sandwina KO 4 (10) 7 Oct 1932 Benjamin Field Arena, Tampa, Florida, U.S.
68 Win 62–6 Art Lasky NWS 10 1 Sep 1932 St. Paul Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.
67 Win 61–6 Jack Gagnon KO 1 (10), 1:35 19 Aug 1932 Mark’s Stadium, North Tiverton, Rhode Island, U.S.
66 Loss 60–6 Stanley Poreda PTS 10 16 Aug 1932 Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
65 Win 60–5 Hans Birkie UD 10 2 Aug 1932 Queensboro Stadium, Long Island City, New York, U.S
64 Win 59–5 Jerry Pavelec TKO 5 (10), 0:51 28 Jul 1932 Playgrounds Stadium, West New York, New Jersey, U.S
63 Win 58–5 Jack Gross TKO 7 (10), 2:50 20 Jul 1932 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
62 Loss 57–5 Larry Gains PTS 10 30 May 1932 White City Stadium, London, England
61 Win 57–4 Hans Schönrath TKO 3 (10) 15 May 1932 Stadio San Siro, Milan, Italy
60 Win 56–4 Maurice Griselle TKO 10 (10) 30 Apr 1932 Palais des Sports, Paris, France
59 Win 55–4 Don McCorkindale PTS 10 7 Apr 1932 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
58 Win 54–4 George Cook KO 4 (10) 23 Mar 1932 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
57 Win 53–4 Pierre Charles PTS 10 29 Feb 1932 Palais des Sports, Paris, France
56 Win 52–4 Ernst Gühring TKO 5 (10) 5 Feb 1932 Berlin Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany
55 Win 51–4 Moise Bouquillon TKO 2 (10) 25 Jan 1932 Palais des Sports, Paris, France
54 Win 50–4 Victorio Campolo KO 2 (15), 1:27 27 Nov 1931 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
53 Win 49–4 King Levinsky UD 10 19 Nov 1931 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
52 Loss 48–4 Jack Sharkey UD 15 12 Oct 1931 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S. For ABA heavyweight title
51 Win 48–3 Armando De Carolis KO 2 (10), 1:08 6 Aug 1931 Shellpot Park, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.
50 Win 47–3 Roberto Roberti TKO 3 (10), 2:25 4 Aug 1931 Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
49 Win 46–3 Knute Hansen KO 1 (10), 2:10 24 Jul 1931 Edgerton Park Arena, Rochester, New York, U.S.
48 Win 45–3 Bud Gorman KO 2 (10), 2:35 30 Jun 1931 Arena Gardens, Toronto, Ontario Canada
47 Win 44–3 Umberto Torriani KO 2 (10), 0:43 26 Jun 1931 Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
46 Win 43–3 Pat Redmond KO 1 (10), 2:24 15 Jun 1931 Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
45 Win 42–3 Jim Maloney PTS 10 5 Mar 1931 Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, Florida, U.S.
44 Win 41–3 Reggie Meen TKO 2 (6) 18 Dec 1930 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
43 Win 40–3 Paulino Uzcudun SD 10 30 Nov 1930 Estadio Olímpico de Montjuïc, Barcelona, Spain
42 Loss 39–3 Jim Maloney PTS 10 7 Oct 1930 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
41 Win 39–2 Jack Gross KO 4 (10) 17 Sep 1930 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
40 Win 38–2 Pat McCarthy TKO 2 (10), 1:16 8 Sep 1930 Newark Velodrome, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
39 Win 37–2 Riccardo Bertazzolo TKO 3 (15) 30 Aug 1930 Atlantic City Auditorium, Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.
38 Win 36–2 George Cook KO 2 (10), 1:44 29 Jul 1930 Taylor Bowl, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
37 Win 35–2 Bearcat Wright KO 4 (10), 1:13 17 Jul 1930 League Park, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
36 Win 34–2 George Godfrey DQ 5 (10), 1:13 23 Jun 1930 Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
35 Win 33–2 KO Christner KO 4 (10), 1:20 5 Jun 1930 Michigan State Fairgrounds Coliseum, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
34 Win 32–2 Sam Baker KO 1 (10) 22 Apr 1930 Portland Ice Hippodrome, Portland, Oregon, U.S.
33 Win 31–2 Leon Chevalier TKO 6 (10) 14 Apr 1930 Oakland Baseball Park, Emeryville, California, U.S.
32 Win 30–2 Neil Clisby KO 2 (10), 0:40 8 Apr 1930 Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
31 Win 29–2 Jack McAuliffe II KO 1 (10), 2:18 28 Mar 1930 Stockyards Stadium, Denver, Colorado, U.S.
30 Win 28–2 George Trafton KO 1 (10), 0:54 26 Mar 1930 Convention Hall, Kansas City, Kansas, U.S.
29 Win 27–2 Frank Zaveta KO 1 (10), 1:51 20 Mar 1930 Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.
28 Win 26–2 Chuck Wiggins KO 2 (10) 17 Mar 1930 St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
27 Win 25–2 Sully Montgomery KO 2 (10), 1:15 11 Mar 1930 Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
26 Win 24–2 Roy Clark KO 6 (10), 2:38 3 Mar 1930 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
25 Win 23–2 Farmer Lodge KO 2 (10), 1:22 24 Feb 1930 Heinemann Park, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
24 Win 22–2 Johnny Erickson KO 2 (10), 1:45 17 Feb 1930 Coliseum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.
23 Win 21–2 Jim Sigman KO 1 (8), 1:35 14 Feb 1930 Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
22 Win 20–2 Buster Martin KO 2 (10), 0:56 11 Feb 1930 St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
21 Win 19–2 Cowboy Billy Owens KO 2 (10), 2:22 6 Feb 1930 113th Regiment Armory, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
20 Win 18–2 Elzear Rioux KO 1 (10), 0:47 31 Jan 1930 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
19 Win 17–2 Big Boy Peterson KO 1 (10), 1:10 24 Jan 1930 Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
18 Win 16–2 Franz Diener TKO 6 (15) 17 Dec 1929 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
17 Loss 15–2 Young Stribling DQ 7 (10) 7 Dec 1929 Vélodrome d’Hiver, Paris, France
16 Win 15–1 Young Stribling DQ 4 (15) 18 Nov 1929 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
15 Win 14–1 Jack Stanley TKO 1 (8) 17 Oct 1929 Royal Albert Hall, London, England
14 Win 13–1 Hermann Jaspers KO 3 (10) 18 Sep 1929 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
13 Win 12–1 Feodor Nikolaeff KO 1 (10) 30 Aug 1929 Garage de Normandie, Dieppe, France
12 Win 11–1 Joe Thomas TKO 4 (10) 25 Aug 1929 Arènes du Rond-Point du Prado, Marseille, France
11 Win 10–1 Jose Lete UD 10 14 Aug 1929 Estadio Municipal de Atocha, San Sebastián, Spain
10 Win 9–1 Jack Humbeeck TKO 6 (10) 26 Jun 1929 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
9 Win 8–1 Marcel Nilles TKO 3 (10) 30 May 1929 Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
8 Win 7–1 Moise Bouquillon PTS 10 22 May 1929 Salle Wagram, Paris, France
7 Loss 6–1 Franz Diener DQ 1 (10) 28 Apr 1929 Messehalle, Leipzig, Germany
6 Win 6–0 Ernst Roesemann TKO 5 (8) 18 Jan 1929 Berlin Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany
5 Win 5–0 Constant Barrick KO 3 (10) 1 Dec 1928 Vélodrome d’Hiver, Paris, France
4 Win 4–0 Epifanio Islas UD 10 25 Nov 1928 Palazzo dello Sport, Milan, Italy
3 Win 3–0 Salvatore Ruggirello TKO 4 (10) 30 Oct 1928 Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
2 Win 2–0 Joe Thomas KO 3 (10) 25 Sep 1928 Cirque de Paris, Paris, France
1 Win 1–0 Leon Sebilo TKO 2 (10) 12 Sep 1928 Salle Wagram, Paris, France

Championships and accomplishments[edit]

Boxing[edit]

Professional wrestling[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  1. ^ a b c d .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free.id-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited.id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration.id-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription.id-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}“BoxRec:Primo Carnera”. BoxRec. Retrieved 29 September 2023.
  2. ^ Luciano Canepari. “Carnera”. DiPI Online (in Italian). Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  3. ^ Page 2010, p. 5.
  4. ^ a b Page 2010, p. 179.
  5. ^ Page 2010, p. 212.
  6. ^ Page 2010, pp. 7, 214.
  7. ^ “Primo Carnera – Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia”. Boxrec.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  8. ^ “Cyber Boxing Zone – Primo Carnera”.
  9. ^ a b Page 2010, p. 209.
  10. ^ Steckel, Richard H. “A History of the Standard of Living in the United States”. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  11. ^ Schaap, Jeremy (2006). Cinderella Man: James J. Braddock, Max Baer, and the Greatest Upset in … – Jeremy Schaap. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0618711902. Retrieved 19 November 2012 – via Google Boeken.
  12. ^ Page 2010, p. 3.
  13. ^ Page 2010, p. 137.
  14. ^ Page 2010, p. 11–12.
  15. ^ Page 2010, p. 22.
  16. ^ Page 2010, p. 52.
  17. ^ Page 2010, pp. 93–94.
  18. ^ Page 2010, p. 100.
  19. ^ Johnson, Catherine (2007). “FAQs”. www.maxbaer.org. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  20. ^ Hunnicutt, Michael (5 April 2005). “Max Baer and the Death of Ernie Schaaf”. International Boxing Research Organization. Archived from the original on 19 April 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  21. ^ Page 2010, p. 117.
  22. ^ “Primo Carnera vs. Max Baer– Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia”. Boxrec.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  23. ^ “X-Ray Examination Reveals That Camera Fractured Ankle Bone in Bout With Baer: CARNERA SUFFERED FRACTURE OF ANKLE”. The New York Times. 17 June 1934. ProQuest 100913674. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  24. ^ “Statue of Carnera Wins Prize”. The New York Times. 14 July 1934. ProQuest 101111135. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  25. ^ “Tommy Loughran Dies at 79”. The New York Times. 10 July 1982. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  26. ^ “All-Time List: Most Career KOs By a Heavyweight Champ”. Boxing Scene. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  27. ^ Gallico, Paul (1988). Farewell To Sport. Sportspages / Simon & Schuster. pp. 60–69. ISBN 0 671 69915 6.
  28. ^ a b Page 2010, p. 189.
  29. ^ “Primo Carnera”. IMDb.
  30. ^ “Prince Valiant”. 5 April 1954 – via IMDb.
  31. ^ “Hercules Unchained”. 13 July 1960 – via IMDb.
  32. ^ “The Strange Case of Carnera, By Jack Sher, Sport, February 1948″. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  33. ^ Page, Joseph S. (2014). Primo Carnera: The Life and Career of the Heavyweight Boxing Champion. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. p. 187. ISBN 978-0786457861. On August 16th Primo was granted a California wrestling license and four days later he met and defeated Jules Strongbow in Wilmington, California. He would meet the Oklahoman at least 10 more times in the next several years. Two days later, Carnera defeated long-time wrestling legend Tommy O’Toole in front of 10,000 fans at Los Angeles in front of 10,000 fans at Los Angeles’ Olympic Auditorium and his career was off and running.
  34. ^ Page 2010, p. 187.
  35. ^ Bodner, Alan (1997). When Boxing Was a Jewish Sport. Praeger Publishers. p. 133. ISBN 978-0275953539.
  36. ^ Sussman, Jeffrey (8 May 2019). Boxing and the Mob: The Notorious History of the Sweet Science. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1538113158.
  37. ^ Edgren, Robert (21 December 1929). “As Edgren Sees It – Young Stribling Gets Only 50-50 Break in Attempt to Grab Off Carnera in Europe”. The Oregonian.
  38. ^ Dawson, James P. (25 January 1929). “20,000 see Carnera Win By a Knockout”. The New York Times. ProQuest 99047615. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  39. ^ “Carnera Floors Trafton In Single Round”. Eugene Register Guard. Associated Press. 27 March 1930. p. 10. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  40. ^ “Trafton Suspended”. The Lewiston Daily Sun. Associated Press. 28 March 1930. p. 19. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  41. ^ Johnston, Chuck. “Famous ‘fixes’ in boxing history…” BoxRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  42. ^ “California Ring Board to Continue Investigation”. The Oregon Journal. 16 April 1930.
  43. ^ “PRIMO CARNERA SUSPENDED: Action Follows Investigation of Knockouts by N.B.A.” The New York Times. 17 May 1930. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  44. ^ “CARNERA TO FIGHT GODFREY TONIGHT”. The New York Times. 17 May 1930. ProQuest 98918577. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  45. ^ “Primo Carnera vs. George Godfrey”. BoxingRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  46. ^ Dawson, James P. (24 June 1930). “CARNERA IS WINNER ON GODFREY’S FOUL”. The New York Times. ProQuest 98910916. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  47. ^ “GODFREY’S LICENSE REVOKED BY BOARD: His $10,000 Purse Is Cut in Half as Aftermath of Foul in Carnera Bout”. The New York Times. 25 June 1930. ProQuest 98939453. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  48. ^ “Time Magazine Cover: Primo Carnera”. Time. 5 October 1931. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  49. ^ Donelson, Tom; Lotierzo, Frank (2004). More Tales From Ringside. iUniverse. p. 125. ISBN 0-595-30588-1.
  50. ^ Holly (3 August 2013). “The Carnera by Emporio Elaborazioni Meccaniche”.
  51. ^ a b Maria Grazia Perini. “Carnera”. Enciclopedia Mondiale del Fumetto. Editoriale Corno, 1978. p.238.
  52. ^ “Primo Carnera”. Retrieved 27 October 2014. Auch als Comicheld hatte Carnera “Karriere” gemacht: Von 1953 bis 1954 erschien im Walter Lehning Verlag, Hannover, mit insgesamt 46 Heften die (ursprünglich aus Italien stammende) Piccolo-Serie “CARNERA”
  53. ^ “Primo Carnera”. Retrieved 27 October 2014. Die Carnera-Beilage in der “Sprechblase”
  54. ^ Sherrin, Ned (Ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations, Oxford University Press, 2012.
  55. ^ Murphy, Warren, Lucifer’s Weekend, Pocket Books, 1982.
  56. ^ a b “Ernie Schaaf – BoxRec”.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Sporting positions
World boxing titles
Preceded by

NYSAC heavyweight champion
June 29, 1933 – June 14, 1934
Succeeded by

NBA heavyweight champion
June 29, 1933 – June 14, 1934
The Ring heavyweight champion
June 29, 1933 – June 14, 1934
Undisputed heavyweight champion
June 29, 1933 – June 14, 1934

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