Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton

British nobleman and naval officer (1720–1794)

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The Duke of Bolton

Portrait by Francis Cotes
Nickname(s) Admiral Stern-post
Born 6 November 1720
Died 25 December 1794
Hackwood House
Years of service 1733–1794
Rank Admiral
Commands held HMS Port Mahon
HMS Oxford
HMS Sandwich
HMS Ruby
HMS Exeter
HMS Somerset
HMS Barfleur
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Alma mater Winchester College
Royal Naval Academy
Relations Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Bolton (father)
Catherine Parry (mother)

Admiral Harry Powlett, 6th Duke of Bolton PC (6 November 1720 – 25 December 1794) was a British nobleman and naval officer.

Origins[edit]

He was the second son of Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Bolton by his wife Catherine Parry.

Career[edit]

He was educated at Winchester College (1728–1729). He joined the Royal Navy, and on 4 March 1740 was promoted lieutenant aboard HMS Shrewsbury. He was promoted captain of HMS Port Mahon on 15 July 1740, and was moved to HMS Oxford in July 1741. While commanding Oxford, in 1744 he took part in the Battle of Toulon, and later gave damaging evidence against Richard Lestock.

He was moved to HMS Sandwich in March 1745, and shortly thereafter to HMS Ruby. On 11 April 1746 Ruby, with HMS Defiance and HMS Salisbury, was dispatched from Plymouth to join the fleet off Brest, France. Before finding the fleet under Admiral William Martin on 22 May, he was able to capture the French frigate Embuscade. He was given command of HMS Exeter in November 1746 and was sent to the East Indies to serve under Rear-Admiral Thomas Griffin and Admiral Edward Boscawen. He was employed by Boscawen at the Siege of Pondicherry in 1748 to take soundings off Pondicherry, in order to arrange the dispositions of the naval blockade of the town.

Upon returning to England in April 1750, Captain Powlett charged Rear-Admiral Griffin with misconduct for failing to engage eight French ships at Cuddalore, a decision which had been generally unpopular among Griffin’s captains. Griffin was found guilty of negligence and was temporarily suspended from his rank. Griffin in response court-martialed Powlett on charges including cowardice, which Powlett attempted to escape by going on half-pay. Meanwhile, he entered the House of Commons in 1751 as Member of Parliament for Christchurch.

Despite Powlett’s evasions, he was court-martialled on 1 September 1752, but was acquitted due to Griffin’s charges having failed for lack of evidence. The incident was sensational, and concluded in 1756 with a duel between the two officers on Blackheath. He was appointed to command HMS Somerset in January 1753.

Powlett’s rapid rise to a captaincy and his willingness to commence court martial proceedings against his superiors were a result of his family connections. His father’s support of Walpole had made him a Lord of the Admiralty in 1733, a post which he retained until 1742. Even after leaving the Admiralty, the Bolton political connections remained sufficiently strong to ensure his continued promotion. However, he had apparently already become a figure of satire and is believed to have inspired the character of “Captain Whiffle” in Smollett’s 1748 novel The Adventures of Roderick Random.[1]

Bolton Hall
Bolton Castle

In 1754, following his father’s succession to the Dukedom, he became known as Lord Harry Powlett, and replaced his elder brother Charles Powlett as MP for the family’s pocket borough of Lymington. He was appointed to command HMS Barfleur on 4 February 1755 and petitioned the Duke of Newcastle, then prime minister, for promotion to flag rank, on the strength of his family’s support of the government. However, a damaging accident to his reputation occurred soon after, while acting with Admiral Hawke‘s fleet off France. Sent on 22 August 1755 to chase a ship to the south-east, he became detached from the fleet. While waiting at the rendezvous on 25 August, the ship’s carpenter reported Barfleur‘s sternpost to be dangerously loose, and Powlett returned to Spithead for repairs. In October 1755 he was court-martialled for having separated from the fleet and returned to port without justification. He was admonished on the first charge and acquitted on the second, and the carpenter was dismissed as incompetent. It was, however, widely believed that the carpenter had served as a scapegoat, and Powlett thereafter was given the sobriquet of “Captain Stern-Post”.[a]

Notwithstanding this incident, the Bolton influence proved irresistible, and he was promoted rear admiral on 4 June 1756 and vice admiral of the White on 14 February 1758. Feeling ran strongly against him, despite his promotions, and he never again received a naval command, even at the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War in 1754. In 1756 supposedly Boscawen requested Powlett’s appointment as his second-in-command but was refused by King George II, who shared in the general low opinion of Powlett. In 1761 he again changed constituencies, and was returned as MP for Winchester.

Succeeds to dukedom[edit]

As a lukewarm supporter of the government, he was intermittently at odds with George Grenville. However, upon succeeding to the dukedom in July 1765 by his brother’s suicide, he threw off his political connections and became a supporter of the crown alone. Bolton was sworn of the Privy Council on 10 December 1766. In 1767 he was given the sinecure post of Vice-Admiral of Dorset and Vice-Admiral of Hampshire (held by several Dukes of Bolton), and promoted to Admiral of the Blue on 18 October 1770 and Admiral of the White on 31 March 1775.

In 1778 he went into opposition to the government over its handling of the American War of Independence, and joined Vice-Admiral Bristol in opposing the court-martial of Admiral Keppel. His political activity diminished after 1780, although in 1782 he was appointed Governor of the Isle of Wight and Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire.

Marriages and progeny[edit]

He married twice:

Death and succession[edit]

Hackwood Park, Hampshire

He died on 25 December 1794 at Hackwood Park, Winslade, in Hampshire, and was buried in Basing, Hampshire with a monument sculpted by John Flaxman RA.[5]

Afterwards, due to his lack of male progeny his dukedom became extinct. His distant cousin and heir male George Paulet succeeded to the Marquessate of Winchester and other titles, while his estates of Bolton Hall, Bolton Castle, Hackwood Park and several others devolved upon his brother’s natural daughter Jean Browne-Powlett, wife of Thomas Orde (later Thomas Orde-Powlett, 1st Baron Bolton), who adopted the additional surname of Powlett.

Notes[edit]

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  1. ^ Thomas Maude, surgeon on the Barfleur, gave supportive evidence at Powlett’s court-martial, and was taken on by Powlett as steward of his Yorkshire estates upon his inheritance in 1865.[2] A contributor in The Gentleman’s Magazine of June 1841 notes that Maude’s court-martial evidence probably saved Powlett’s life.[3] Capital punishment was mandated for officers who did not do their utmost against the enemy, either in battle or pursuit. A court-martial in the following year sentenced John Byng to death for not doing his utmost to engage or destroy the enemy, and Byng was executed in March 1757.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free.id-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited.id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration.id-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription.id-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}Underdown, David (December 2005). “Aristocratic Faction and Reformist Politics in Eighteenth-Century Hampshire: The Election of December 1779”. Huntington Library Quarterly. 68 (4): 601–630. doi:10.1525/hlq.2005.68.4.601.
  2. ^ Smith, Charlotte Fell (1894). “Maude, Thomas” . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 37. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 80–81.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  3. ^ “Thomas Maude Esq. of Bolton Hall”. The Gentleman’s Magazine 1841-06: Vol 15. Open Court Publishing Co: 597. June 1841.
  4. ^ Hannay, David (1911). “Byng, John” . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851 by Rupert Gunnis p.150
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by

Member of Parliament for Christchurch
17511754
With: Sir Thomas Robinson
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Member of Parliament for Lymington
17551761
With: Sir Harry Burrard
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Member of Parliament for Winchester
1761–1765
With: Henry Penton
Succeeded by

Honorary titles
Preceded by

Governor of the Isle of Wight
1766–1770
Succeeded by

Vice-Admiral of the Isle of Wight
1767–1771
Preceded by

Governor of the Isle of Wight
1782–1791
Succeeded by

Vacant

Title last held by

The Duke of Bolton

Vice-Admiral of Dorset and Hampshire
1767–1794
Vacant

Title next held by

The Marquess of Winchester

Preceded by

Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire
1782–1794
Succeeded by

In Commission
Peerage of England
Preceded by

Duke of Bolton
1765–1794
Extinct
Marquess of Winchester
1765–1794
Succeeded by