George Grenville

Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1763 to 1765

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George Grenville

Portrait by William Hoare, 1764
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
16 April 1763 – 10 July 1765
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Earl of Bute
Succeeded by The Marquess of Rockingham
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
16 April 1763 – 16 July 1765
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Sir Francis Dashwood, Bt
Succeeded by William Dowdeswell
First Lord of the Admiralty
In office
14 October 1762 – 16 April 1763
Prime Minister The Earl of Bute
Preceded by The Earl of Halifax
Succeeded by The Earl of Sandwich
Northern Secretary
In office
27 May 1762 – 9 October 1762
Prime Minister The Earl of Bute
Preceded by The Earl of Bute
Succeeded by The Earl of Halifax
Member of Parliament
for Buckingham
In office
11 June 1741 – 13 November 1770
Preceded by Richard Grenville
Succeeded by James Grenville
Personal details
Born (1712-10-14)14 October 1712
Wotton Underwood, England
Died 13 November 1770(1770-11-13) (aged 58)
Mayfair, England
Resting place All Saints Churchyard, Wotton Underwood
Political party Whig (Grenvillite)
Spouse .mw-parser-output .marriage-line-margin2px{line-height:0;margin-bottom:-2px}.mw-parser-output .marriage-line-margin3px{line-height:0;margin-bottom:-3px}.mw-parser-output .marriage-display-ws{display:inline;white-space:nowrap}

(m. .mw-parser-output .tooltip-dotted{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}1749; died 1769)​

Children 8; including George, Charlotte, Thomas and William
Parents .mw-parser-output .plainlist ol,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul{line-height:inherit;list-style:none;margin:0;padding:0}.mw-parser-output .plainlist ol li,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul li{margin-bottom:0}

Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Eton College

George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham. He emerged as one of Cobham’s Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham.

In 1754, Grenville became Treasurer of the Navy, a position he held twice until 1761. In October 1761 he chose to stay in government and accepted the new role of Leader of the Commons causing a rift with his brother-in-law and political ally William Pitt who had resigned. Grenville was subsequently made Northern Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty by the new Prime Minister Lord Bute. On 8 April 1763, Lord Bute resigned, and Grenville assumed his position as Prime Minister.[1] His government tried to bring public spending under control and pursued an assertive foreign policy. His best-known policy is the Stamp Act, a long-standing tax in Great Britain which Grenville extended to the colonies in America, but which instigated widespread opposition in Britain’s American colonies and was later repealed. Grenville had increasingly strained relations with his colleagues and the King. In 1765, he was dismissed by George III and replaced by Lord Rockingham. For the last five years of his life, Grenville led a group of his supporters in opposition and staged a public reconciliation with Pitt.

Early life: 1712-1741[edit]


Coat of arms of Grenville of Wotton Underwood, Buckinghamshire: Vert, on a cross argent five torteaux

George Grenville was born at Wotton House on 14 October 1712. He was the second son of Richard Grenville and Hester Temple (later the 1st Countess Temple). He was one of five brothers, all of whom became MPs. His sister Hester Grenville married the leading political figure William Pitt. His elder brother was Richard Grenville, later the 2nd Earl Temple. It was intended by his parents that George Grenville should become a lawyer.[2]


Grenville was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, Oxford, but did not graduate.[3]

Early political career: 1741-1756[edit]

Member of Parliament[edit]

Stowe House in Buckinghamshire, the political base of the Cobham faction; in 1749, ownership of the estate passed to Grenville’s brother Richard.

He entered Parliament in 1741 as one of the two members for Buckingham, and continued to represent that borough for the next twenty-nine years until his death.[3] He was disappointed to be giving up what appeared to be a promising legal career for the uncertainties of opposition politics.[4]

In Parliament, he subscribed to the “Boy Patriot” party, which opposed Sir Robert Walpole.[3] In particular he enjoyed the patronage of his uncle Lord Cobham, the leader of a faction that included George Grenville, his brother Richard, William Pitt and George Lyttelton that became known as Cobham’s Cubs.


In December 1744 he became a Lord of the Admiralty in the administration of Henry Pelham. He allied himself with his brother Richard and with William Pitt (who became their brother-in-law in 1754) in forcing Pelham to give them promotion by rebelling against his authority and obstructing business. In June 1747, Grenville became a Lord of the Treasury.[3]

In 1754 Grenville was made Treasurer of the Navy and Privy Councillor. Along with Pitt and several other colleagues he was dismissed in 1755 after speaking and voting against the government on a debate about a recent subsidy treaty with Russia which they believed was unnecessarily costly, and would drag Britain into Continental European disputes. Opposition to European entanglements was a cornerstone of Patriot Whig thinking.

He and Pitt joined the opposition, haranguing the Newcastle government. Grenville and Pitt both championed the formation of a British militia to provide additional security rather than the deployment of Hessian mercenaries favoured by the government.[5] As the military situation deteriorated following the loss of Minorca, the government grew increasingly weak until it was forced to resign in Autumn 1756.

In Government: 1756-1763[edit]

Treasurer of the Navy[edit]

Pitt then formed a government led by the Duke of Devonshire. Grenville was returned to his position as Treasurer of the Navy, which was a great disappointment as he had been expecting to receive the more prestigious and lucrative post of Paymaster of the Forces.[6] This added to what Grenville regarded as a series of earlier slights in which Pitt and others had passed him over for positions in favour of men he considered no more talented than he was. From then on Grenville felt a growing resentment towards Pitt, and grew closer to the young Prince of Wales and his advisor Lord Bute who were both now opposed to Pitt.[7]

In 1758, as Treasurer of the Navy, he introduced and carried a bill which established a fairer system of paying the wages of seamen and supporting their families while they were at sea which was praised for its humanity if not for its effectiveness.[8] He remained in office during the years of British victories, notably the Annus Mirabilis of 1759 for which the credit went to the government of which he was a member. However his seven-year-old son died after a long illness and Grenville remained by his side at their country house in Wotton and rarely came to London.[9]

In 1761, when Pitt resigned upon the question of the war with Spain, and subsequently functioned as Leader of the House of Commons in the administration of Lord Bute.[3] Grenville’s role was seen as an attempt to keep someone closely associated with Pitt involved in the government, in order to prevent Pitt and his supporters actively opposing the government. However, it soon led to conflict between Grenville and Pitt. Grenville was also seen as a suitable candidate because his reputation for honesty meant he commanded loyalty and respect amongst independent MPs.[10]

Northern Secretary[edit]

Grenville served under British Prime Minister Lord Bute between 1762 and 1763 and later succeeded him.

In May 1762, Grenville was appointed Northern Secretary, where he took an increasingly hard line in the negotiations with France and Spain designed to bring the Seven Years’ War to a close.[11]

Grenville demanded much greater compensation in exchange for the return of British conquests, while Bute favored a more generous position which eventually formed the basis of the Treaty of Paris. In spite of this, Grenville had now become associated with Bute rather than his former political allies who were even more vocal in their opposition to the peace treaty than he was. In October he was made First Lord of the Admiralty. Henry Fox took over as Leader of the Commons, and forced the peace treaty through parliament.

Bute’s position grew increasingly untenable and stable as he was extremely unpopular, which led to him offering his resignation to George III on several occasions. Bute was the target of the radical John Wilkes‘s criticism and satire and he ridiculed in Wilkes’ newspaper The North Briton, stereotypical reference to the prime minister’s Scottish heritage.

Prime Minister: 1763-1765 [edit]


Bute’s intention to resign was genuine, and the hostile press attacks and the continuing unpopularity of his government finally led to King George III to reluctantly accept his resignation. Though the king was unsure whom should be appoint to the position and Bute highly recommended that the King should appoint Grenville as the new prime minister. Despite the King’s disapproval and distrust of his ministers, he considered appointed Grenville to office.

When Grenville was asked about becoming the new prime minister, he agreed only on the condition that Bute would not take an active part in politics and be barred from voicing policies for the government. The King agreed and thus appointed Grenville as new Prime Minister. George III assured Grenville that “he meant to put his government solely into his hand”. Grenville set to work and formed his government on 16 April 1763. He appointed two of his trusted allies Lord Halifax and Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont as Northern Secretary and Southern Secretary respectively. He also appointed the Lord Northington as Lord High Chancellor, Lord Granville as Lord President of the Council as well.

Domestic issues[edit]

Arrest of John Wilkes[edit]

House of Commons was thrown into doubt by the first case involving the Member of Parliament John Wilkes, a radical reformer and political activist who promoted parliamentary representation and reform, whose critique of the former prime minister led to his resignation.
Wilkes was regarded by many as threat to the government and therefore was treated suspiciously. In 1763, it came to be one of Grenville’s first acts to prosecute Wilkes for publishing in The North Briton newspaper an article deriding King George III’s speech made on 23 April 1763.[1] Wilkes was prosecuted for “seditious libel“. That was a massive tactical blunder by the secretaries of state, for it was perceived as a violation of individual liberty that raised the political discontent.

After fighting a duel with a supporter of the Grenville ministry, Samuel Martin, Wilkes fled to France for asylum. Despite, government officials calling on him to be arrested, Wilkes was later returned to England and was elected and re-elected by the Middlesex constituency. He was continually refused admission to parliament by parliament, and proved a problem to several successive governments.

Monetary debt[edit]

During the time of the Seven Years’ War, was a tumultuous period in the history of Europe and was fought on a global conflict scale. Even though Great Britain defeated France and its allies and rose to the position as a dominant world power, the victory came at a great cost. In January 1763, Great Britain’s national debt was more than £122 million pounds, an enormous sum for the time. Interest on the debt was more than £4.4 million a year. Figuring out how to pay the interest alone absorbed the attention of the King and his ministers.[12]

As Britain was trying to recover from the costs of the Seven Years’ War and now in dire need of finances for the British army in the American colonies, Grenville’s most immediate task was to restore the nation’s finances. He also had to deal with the fall-out from Pontiac’s Rebellion, which erupted in North America in 1763. Although, initially, prominent measures of his government included the prosecution of John Wilkes, focus shifted from arresting radicals to paying off the national debt. The passing of the tax measures in America had proved to be a disaster and would lead to the first symptoms of alienation between American colonies and Great Britain.[3]

Colonial reforms[edit]

Cartoon depicting the repeal of the Stamp Act as a funeral, with Grenville carrying a child’s coffin marked “Miss America Stamp born 1765, died 1766” (The Skulls refer to the Scottish Rebellions of 1715 and 1745)
An English Newspaper on the repeal of the Stamp Act

Measures and taxes[edit]

Many of the acts passed by the British were perceived by the colonists as threatening to their liberties. Although not a part of the Grenville government’s programme, the issue was generally attributed to him by the colonists. Another one of the most controversial acts passed by Grenville was the Quartering Act on 15 May 1765. Enacted because of a request by Major General Thomas Gage, commander-in-chief in North America, to give better housing for his troops stationed in the colonies.

One of the more prominent measures of the Grenville’s government occurred in March 1765 when Grenville authored the Stamp Act, enacted in November of that year. It was an exclusive tax placed on the colonies in America requiring that documents and newspapers be printed on stamped paper from London bearing an embossed revenue stamp that had to be paid for in British currency. It was met with general outrage and resulted in public acts of disobedience and rioting throughout the colonies in America.[13]

Foreign policy[edit]

The signing of the treaty in February 1763 formally marked the conclusion of the Seven Years’ War experienced by Britain and as such, foreign policy, along with military policy and diplomacy, no longer became the dominant concern of both domestic politics and government agenda. Focus thus shifted to seemingly more relevant issues such as the survival of the Grenville Ministry. But overall the British relations, after negotiating, with the French and the Spanish, remained hostile and suspicious of its enemies and that wariness concluded the entirety of Grenville’s policy.

When seemingly, the French and the Spanish began to support Britain’s colonial dissenters in the Americas and beyond and threatening British allies in the continent, promoting disputes and resentment from British politicians who viewed them as a violation of British sovereignty. Britain begun a process of isolation, when Britain had no allies in the continent and the allies it did have were weak or less significant in military or political might.

In disputes with Spain and France, Grenville managed to secure British objectives by deploying what was later described as gunboat diplomacy.[14] During his ministry. Britain’s international isolation increased, as Britain failed to secure alliances with other major European powers, a situation that subsequent governments were unable to reverse leading to Britain fighting several countries during the American War of Independence without a major ally.


The King made various attempts to induce Pitt to come to his rescue by forming a ministry, but without success, and at last had recourse to Lord Rockingham. When Rockingham agreed to accept office, the king dismissed Grenville in July 1765. He never again held office.[15][3]

The nickname of “gentle shepherd” was given him because he bored the House by asking over and over again, during the debate on the Cider Bill of 1763, that somebody should tell him “where” to lay the new tax if it was not to be put on cider. Pitt whistled the air of the popular tune (by Boyce) Gentle Shepherd, tell me where, and the House laughed.[16] Though few surpassed him in knowledge of the forms of the House or in mastery of administrative details, he lacked tact in dealing with people and affairs.[3]

Later life: 1765-1770[edit]

In Opposition[edit]

After a period of active opposition to the Chatham Ministry led by Pitt between 1766 and 1768, Grenville became an elder statesman during his last few years – seeking to avoid becoming associated with any faction or party in the House of Commons.[17] He was able to oversee the re-election of his core group of supporters in the 1768 General Election. His followers included Robert Clive and Lord George Sackville and he received support from his elder brother Lord Temple.

In late 1768 he reconciled with Pitt and the two joined forces, re-uniting the partnership that had broken up in 1761 when Pitt had resigned from the government.[18] Grenville was successful in mobilising the opposition during the Middlesex election dispute.

Grenville prosecuted John Wilkes and the printers and authors for treason and sedition for publishing a bitter editorial about King George III’s recent speech in “The North Briton” a weekly periodical. After losing the case Grenville lost favor from the public who regarded the act as an attempt to silence or control the press.[15][19]

Advocate and critic[edit]

Although personally opposed to Wilkes, Grenville saw the government’s attempt to bar him from the Commons as unconstitutional and opposed it on principle.

Following a French invasion of Corsica in 1768 Grenville advocated sending British support to the Corsican Republic. Grenville was critical of the Grafton Government‘s failure to intervene and he considered such weakness would encourage the French. In the House of Commons he observed “For fear of going to war, you will make a war unavoidable”.[20]

In 1770 Grenville steered a bill concerning the results of contested elections, a major issue in the eighteenth century, into law – despite strong opposition from the government.[21]


Grenville died on 13 November 1770, aged 58. His personal following divided after his death, with a number joining the government of Lord North. In the long-term, the Grenvillites were revived by William Pitt the Younger who served as Prime Minister from 1784 and dominated British politics until his death in 1806. Grenville’s own son, William Grenville, later served briefly as Prime Minister.[15] Grenville is buried at Wotton Underwood in Buckinghamshire[22]

George Grenville’s post mortem was carried up by John Hunter who retained specimens in his collection which later became the Hunterian Museum. Subsequent analysis of these specimens published by the Royal College of Surgeons of England suggests that George Grenville was affected by Multiple myeloma at the time of his death.[23]


He was one of the relatively few prime ministers (others include Henry Pelham, William Pitt the Younger, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Bonar Law, Ramsay MacDonald, Neville Chamberlain, Sir Winston Churchill, George Canning, Spencer Perceval, William Ewart Gladstone, Edward Heath, John Major, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, Theresa May, Boris Johnson, and Liz Truss) who never acceded to the peerage.

The town of Grenville, Quebec, was named after George Grenville. The town is in turn the namesake for the Grenville orogeny, a long-lived Mesoproterozoic mountain-building event associated with the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. Its record is a prominent orogenic belt which spans a significant portion of the North American continent, from Labrador to Mexico, and extends to Scotland.

Family life[edit]

In 1749 Grenville married Elizabeth Wyndham (1719 – 5 December 1769), daughter of Sir William Wyndham, and the granddaughter of Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset. Somerset did not approve of their marriage and consequently left Elizabeth only a small sum in his will.[15]

The couple had four sons and four daughters.[24] (One account states they had five daughters.)[15]

  1. Richard Grenville (died 1759), died young
  2. George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham (17 June 1753 – 11 February 1813), father of the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos
  3. Charlotte Grenville (c. 1754 – 29 September 1830), married Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 4th Baronet (1749–1789) on 21 December 1771, and had eight children, six of whom survived to adulthood
  4. Thomas Grenville (31 December 1755 – 17 December 1846), MP and bibliophile, died unmarried
  5. Elizabeth Grenville (24 October 1756 – 21 December 1842), married (as his second wife) John Proby, 1st Earl of Carysfort (1751–1828), on 12 April 1787, and had three daughters
  6. William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville (25 October 1759 – 12 January 1834), later Prime Minister
  7. Catherine Grenville (1761 – 6 November 1796), married Richard Neville-Aldworth (1750–1825), afterwards Richard Griffin, 2nd Baron Braybrooke, on 19 June 1780, and had four children.
  8. Hester Grenville (before 1767 – 13 November 1847), married Hugh Fortescue, 1st Earl Fortescue, on 10 May 1782 and had nine children

At the time of his death in 1770, he was the heir presumptive to the Earldom of Temple held by his elder brother Richard (who had succeeded their mother in that title in 1752, but had no sons). When Richard died in 1779, George’s second (but eldest surviving) son, also George, therefore succeeded as 3rd Earl Temple, and was later created Marquess of Buckingham. His male line survived until the death of the 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos in 1889.

See also[edit]


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  1. ^ a b .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output a,.mw-parser-output a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit} .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F} .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error, .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){ .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error, .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397} .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}“Public Opinion and the House of Commons: John Wilkes”. A History of England, by Charles M. Andrews, Professor of History in Bryn Mawr College History. Library 4 History. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  2. ^ Lawson, p. 3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Chisholm 1911, p. 580.
  4. ^ Lawson.
  5. ^ Lawson, pp. 84–87.
  6. ^ Brown, p. 133.
  7. ^ Lawson, pp. 110–113.
  8. ^ Lawson, pp. 107–108.
  9. ^ Lawson, pp. 108–109.
  10. ^ Anderson, pp. 487–488.
  11. ^ George Grenville, Smith Rebellion 1765, Retrieved: 28 October 2010
    *History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent Volume V. Bancroft, George. Little, Brown and Company. Boston, Mass. 1854
    *American Leviathan: Empire, Nation and the Revolutionary Frontier. Griffin, Patrick. Hill and Wang A division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux. New York, NY. 2007
    * Wilkes, Liberty, and Number 45: The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site.
  12. ^ “British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1763-1766 | The American Revolution, 1763 – 1783 | U.S. History Primary Source Timeline | Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress”. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 19 August 2023.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ Marjie Bloy Ph.D., Senior Research Fellow
    National University of Singapore
  14. ^ Thomas, p. 114.
  15. ^ a b c d e “George Grenville (1712–1770)”. Dr. Bloy, A Web of English History. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
    Bibliography of source material:
    * Lawson, P. George Grenville: A Political Life. Oxford 1984.
    * Wiggin, L. M. The Faction of Cousins: a Political Account of the Grenvilles 1733–1763. New Haven, 1958.
  16. ^ Lawson, p. 149.
  17. ^ Johnson, p. 297.
  18. ^ Lawson, p. 273.
  19. ^ “George Grenville (1712–1770)”. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  20. ^ Thomas, p. 199.
  21. ^ Lawson, pp. 285–286.
  22. ^ GrenODNB.
  23. ^ Spigelman, M.; Berger, L.; Pinhasi, R.; Donoghue, HD; Chaplin, S. (2008). “John Hunter’s Post-Mortem Examination Of George Grenville (1712–1770)”. The Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 90 (10): 338–339. doi:10.1308/147363508X337163.
  24. ^ See pedigrees in Beckett 1994, p. 35; and in Sack, James J. (1979). The Grenvillites, 1801–29: Party Politics and Factionalism in the age of Pitt and Liverpool. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. pp. xxii–xxiii. ISBN 978-0252007132.



External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by

Treasurer of the Navy
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Treasurer of the Navy
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Leader of the House of Commons
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Secretary of State for the Northern Department
Succeeded by

Preceded by

First Lord of the Admiralty
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Prime Minister of Great Britain
16 April 1763 – 10 July 1765
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Chancellor of the Exchequer
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Leader of the House of Commons
Succeeded by

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by

Member of Parliament for Buckingham
With: George Chamberlayne 1741–1747
Richard Grenville 1747–1753
Temple West 1753–1754
James Grenville 1754–1768
Henry Grenville
Succeeded by