Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds

British politician (1751–1799)

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The Duke of Leeds

Portrait by Benjamin West, circa 1769
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
23 December 1783 – May 1791
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Right Hon. William Pitt
Preceded by The Earl Temple
Succeeded by The Lord Grenville
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
1789–1790
Preceded by The Lord Sydney
Succeeded by The Lord Grenville
Personal details
Born 29 January 1751 (1751-01-29)
Died 31 January 1799(1799-01-31) (aged 48)
London, England, Great Britain
Resting place All Hallows Church, Harthill, South Yorkshire
Nationality British
Political party Tory
Spouses .mw-parser-output .plainlist ol,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul{line-height:inherit;list-style:none;margin:0;padding:0}.mw-parser-output .plainlist ol li,.mw-parser-output .plainlist ul li{margin-bottom:0}

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(m. 1773; div. 1779)​

(m. 1788)​

Children
Parent(s) Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke of Leeds
Lady Mary Godolphin
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

Francis Godolphin Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, KG, PC (29 January 1751 – 31 January 1799), styled Marquess of Carmarthen until 1789, was a British politician. He notably served as Foreign Secretary under William Pitt the Younger from 1783 to 1791. He also was Governor of Scilly. In 1790, he was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter. As a statesman, he is generally regarded as a failure, and his deep hostility to the newly independent United States damaged relations between the two countries.

Background and education[edit]

Carmarthen was the only surviving son of Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke of Leeds, by his wife, Lady Mary, daughter of Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin, and Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough. He was educated at Westminster School and at Christ Church, Oxford.[1]

Political career[edit]

Carmarthen was a Member of Parliament for Eye in 1774 and for Helston from 1774 to 1775; in 1776 having received a writ of acceleration as Baron Osborne, he entered the House of Lords, and in 1777 Lord Chamberlain of the Queen‘s Household and Captain of Deal Castle. In the House of Lords he was prominent as a determined foe of the prime minister, Lord North, who, after he had resigned his position as chamberlain, deprived him of the office of Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1780. He regained this, however, two years later.[1]

Early in 1783, Carmarthen was selected as ambassador to France, but he did not take up this appointment, becoming instead Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under William Pitt the Younger in December of the same year.[1] Historian Jeremy Black says that in terms of foreign policy, Pitt and other leaders were disappointed with his performance as a minister. The Duke of Leeds, as he became upon his father’s death in 1789, was anti-French but did not develop an active and aggressive foreign policy. Instead, King George III himself set the main lines of foreign policy before he became mentally disabled.[2] Pitt’s rejection of Leeds’ anti-Russian policy was the final blow and he left office in April 1791.[3]

Leeds had done nothing to foster good relations with the newly independent United States: two future Presidents, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, as envoys from the United States, both complained of his obstructive attitude and “aversion to having anything to do with us”.[4] While Adams, who was rather Anglophile by inclination, was prepared to forgive and forget, Jefferson was not, and it can be argued that Leeds’s only lasting achievement was to foster Jefferson’s implacable hostility as President to Great Britain and its rulers.[5]

Subsequently, Leeds took little part in politics: in 1792, hearing rumours that a new coalition might be formed, he unwisely offered himself as its head and met with a firm rebuff from both Pitt and the King.[6]

Family[edit]

Ancestral arms of the Osborne family, Dukes of Leeds

Leeds married firstly in 1773 Lady Amelia Darcy, daughter of Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness on 29 November 1773. Lady Amelia became Baroness Darcy de Knayth and Baroness Conyers in her own right in 1778. They were divorced in 1779.[7] Their marriage produced three children:

He married secondly Catherine, daughter of Thomas Anguish, in 1788 and had two more children:

  • Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne (1789–1861); unmarried.
  • Lady Catherine Anne Sarah Osborne (1791–1878); married Major John Whyte-Melville on 1 June 1819 and had issue.

Leeds died in London in January 1799, aged 48, and was buried in the Osborne family chapel at All Hallows Church, Harthill, South Yorkshire. He was succeeded in the dukedom by his eldest son from his first marriage, George Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds. His second son from his first marriage, Lord Francis Osborne, was created Baron Godolphin in 1832. The dowager Duchess of Leeds died in October 1837, aged 73. Leeds’s Political Memoranda were edited by Oscar Browning for the Camden Society in 1884, and there are eight volumes of his official correspondence in the British Museum.[1]

References[edit]

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  1. ^ a b c d Chisholm 1911.
  2. ^ Jeremy Black, British Foreign Policy in an Age of Revolutions, 1783-1793 (1994), pp. 55-56.
  3. ^ William Hague William Pitt the Younger.[page needed]
  4. ^ McCullough, David John Adams, Simon and Schuster New York (2001).[page needed]
  5. ^ McCullough, John Adams.[page needed]
  6. ^ Hague, William William Pitt the Younger Harper Collins (2004).[page needed]
  7. ^ .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free.id-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited.id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration.id-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription.id-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-night .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error,html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}html.skin-theme-clientpref-os .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}“House of Lords Journal Volume 35: April 1779 11-20”. British History Online. HMSO. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by

Member of Parliament for Eye
1774
With: Richard Burton Phillipson
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Member of Parliament for Helston
1774–1775
With: Francis Owen
Succeeded by

Court offices
Preceded by

Lord Chamberlain to The Queen
1777–1780
Succeeded by

Political offices
Preceded by

Foreign Secretary
1783–1791
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Leader of the House of Lords
1789–1790
Honorary titles
Vacant

Title last held by

The Viscount of Irvine

Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire
1778–1780
Succeeded by

Preceded by

Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire
1782–1799
Succeeded by

Vacant

Title last held by

The Marquess of Rockingham

Vice-Admiral of Yorkshire
1795–1799
Vacant

Title next held by

The Lord Mulgrave

Preceded by

Governor of the Isles of Scilly
1785−1799
Succeeded by

Peerage of England
Preceded by

Duke of Leeds
1789–1799
Succeeded by

Baron Osborne
(writ in acceleration)

1776–1799