European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity

EU organization

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European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity
Abbreviation ENTSO-E
Formation 19 December 2008; 15 years ago (2008-12-19)
Type Association
Legal status AISBL
Purpose ENTSO-E promotes closer cooperation across Europe’s TSOs to support the implementation of EU energy policy and achieve Europe’s energy & climate policy objectives, which are changing the very nature of the power system
Headquarters Rue de Spa 8
Brussels, Belgium
Region served
Transmission system operators
Main organ

ENTSO-E, the European Network of Transmission System Operators, represents 40 electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) from 36 countries across Europe, thus extending beyond EU borders. ENTSO-E was established and given legal mandates by the EU’s Third Package for the Internal energy market in 2009, which aims at further liberalising the gas and electricity markets in the EU.[1]
Ukrainian Ukrenergo became the 40th member of the association on 1 January 2024.[2]


On 27 June 2008, 36 European electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) signed in Prague a declaration of intent to create the ENTSO-E.[3] ENTSO-E was established on 19 December 2008 in Brussels by 42 TSOs as a successor of six regional associations of the electricity transmission system operators.[4][5] ENTSO-E became operational on 1 July 2009. The former associations ETSO, ATSOI, UKTSOA, NORDEL, UCTE and BALTSO became a part of the ENTSO-E, while still offering data by their predecessors for public interest.[6]

Creation of ENTSO-E was initiated by the adoption of the European Union third legislative package on the gas and electricity markets.[3] In 2003, the European Commission conducted a sector inquiry concerning the competition of electricity market in six European countries.[7] Examining competition in these countries, the final report stated serious issues to be solved.[8] It was noticed that the integration between member state’s markets is still insufficient. Additionally, the absence of transparently available market information was assessed.[7] As a result, the third legislative package on the EU gas and electricity markets was adopted by the European Commission in September 2007.[9]


According to its website, “ENTSO-E promotes closer cooperation across Europe’s TSOs to support the implementation of EU energy policy and achieve Europe’s energy & climate policy objectives, which are changing the very nature of the power system. The main objectives of ENTSO-E centre on the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind and solar power into the power system, and the completion of the internal energy market (IEM), which is central to meeting the European Union’s energy policy objectives of affordability, sustainability and security of supply. […] ENTSO-E aims to be the focal point for all technical, market and policy issues relating to TSOs and the European network, interfacing with power system users, EU institutions, regulators and national governments.”[10]


TSOs are responsible for the bulk transmission of electric power on the main high voltage electric networks. TSOs provide grid access to the electricity market players (i.e., generating companies, traders, suppliers, distributors, and directly connected customers) according to non-discriminatory and transparent rules. In many countries, TSOs are in charge of the development of the grid infrastructure, too. TSOs in the European Union internal electricity market are entities operating independently from the other electricity market players (unbundling).[11]

ENTSO-E contained 40 Member TSOs from 36 countries as of January 2024.[12] Due to Brexit three Great Britain based operators left and only Northern Ireland’s SONI remains from the UK.[13]

On 26 April 2022 Ukrenergo signed an observer membership agreement[14] and became the 40th member of ENTSO-E on 1 January 2024.[2]

On 14 January 2016 TEİAŞ signed an agreement with ENTSO-E to become first observer member, the agreement expired in January 2019.[15] On 13 December 2022 TEİAŞ signed a new Observer Membership Agreement that will run for a period of three years.[16]

ISO country code Country TSO Abbr.
AL Albania Operatori i Sistemit te Transmetimit OST
AT Austria Austrian Power Grid AG APG
AT Austria Vorarlberger Übertragungsnetz VUEN
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina BiH Independent System Operator NOS BiH
BE Belgium Elia Transmission Belgium Elia
BG Bulgaria Electroenergien Sistemen Operator ESO
HR Croatia Croatian Transmission System Operator HOPS
CY Cyprus Cyprus Transmission System Operator Cyprus TSO
DK Denmark Energinet
EE Estonia Elering
FI Finland Fingrid
FR France Réseau de Transport d’Électricité RTE
DE Germany TransnetBW TNG
DE Germany Tennet TSO TTG
DE Germany Amprion
DE Germany 50Hertz Transmission 50Hertz
GR Greece Independent Power Transmission Operator IPTO (or ADMIE)
HU Hungary MAVIR Magyar Villamosenergia-ipari Átviteli Rendszerirányító ZRt. MAVIR
IS Iceland Landsnet
IE Ireland EirGrid
IT Italy Terna
LV Latvia Augstsprieguma tīkls AST
LT Lithuania Litgrid
LU Luxembourg Creos Luxembourg
MK North Macedonia MEPSO
ME Montenegro Crnogorski elektroprenosni sistem AD CGES
NL Netherlands TenneT TTN
NO Norway Statnett
PL Poland Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne PSE
PT Portugal Redes Energéticas Nacionais REN
RO Romania Transelectrica
RS Serbia Elektromreža Srbije EMS
SK Slovakia Slovenská elektrizačná prenosová sústava SEPS
SI Slovenia Elektro-Slovenija ELES
ES Spain Red Eléctrica de España REE
SE Sweden Svenska Kraftnät SVK
CH Switzerland Swissgrid Swissgrid
GB United Kingdom System Operator for Northern Ireland SONI


ISO country code Country TSO Abbr.
UA Ukraine Ukrenergo Ukrenergo
TR Turkey Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation TEİAŞ

Geographical area[edit]

Map of the extent

The geographical area covered by ENTSO-E’s member TSOs is divided into five synchronous areas and two isolated systems (Cyprus and Iceland). Synchronous areas are groups of countries that are connected via their respective power systems. The system frequency (50 Hz, with usually very minor deviations) is synchronous within each area, and a disturbance at one single point in the area will be registered across the entire zone. Individual synchronous areas are interconnected through direct current interconnectors.

The benefits of synchronous areas include pooling of generation capacities, common provisioning of reserves, both resulting in cost-savings, and mutual assistance in the event of disturbances, resulting in cheaper reserve power costs (for instance in case of a disturbance or outage).[17]

Legal basis[edit]

The Third Energy Package and Regulation (EC) No 714/2009[18] on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity regulation stipulate ENTSO-E’s tasks and responsibilities. Regulation (EU) 838/2010[19] on guidelines relating to the inter-TSO compensation mechanism sets out the methodology by which TSOs receive compensation for the costs incurred in hosting cross-border flows of electricity. Regulation (EU) 347/2013[20] on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure defines European Projects of Common Interest (PCIs)[21] identifies ENTSO-E’s ten-year network development plan (TYNDP)[22] as the basis for the selection of PCIs. ENTSO-E is also mandated to develop a corresponding cost–benefit methodology[23] for the assessment of transmission infrastructure projects.

The Transparency Regulation (EU) No. 543/2013[24] on submission and publication of data in electricity markets makes it mandatory for European Member State data providers and owners to submit fundamental information related to electricity generation, load, transmission, balancing, outages, and congestion management for publication through the ENTSO-E Transparency Platform.[17]

ENTSO‑E does not class as a “public sector body” under the meaning provided in the 2019 Open Data Directive.

Key activities[edit]

Pan-European Transmission Network plans and cost–benefit analysis[edit]

The ten-year network development plan 2016 (TYNDP)[25] is drafted by ENTSO-E, in close cooperation with stakeholders, under scrutiny of ACER and is finally adopted by the European Commission. It is the only existing pan-European network development plan. It is the basis for the selection of EU projects of common interest (PCIs).[26] The list of PCIs is not fixed by ENTSO-E and is subject to a different process led by the European Commission and EU Member States.

The TYNDP is updated every two years. For inclusion in the TYNDP, each project, whether transmission or storage, has to go through a cost–benefit analysis. The benefit analysis methodology[23] is developed by ENTSO-E in consultation with stakeholders and adopted by the European Commission. It assesses projects against socio-economic and environmental criteria.[17]

Adequacy Outlooks[edit]

ENTSO-E publishes summer and winter adequacy outlooks,[27] as well as a mid-term resource adequacy assessment, the European Resource Adequacy Assessment (ERAA).[28] The seasonal outlooks assess if there is enough generation to cover supply and highlight possibilities for neighbouring countries to contribute to the generation/demand balance in critical situations in a specific country. The ERAA analyses resource adequacy on the decade ahead, accounting for investment and retirement decisions.

Network codes[edit]

ENTSO-E’s network codes are binding pan-European rules drafted by ENTSO-E in consultation with stakeholders, with guidance from ACER. Network codes are grouped in three areas:

  • connection codes connecting electricity generators, demand, and direct current lines to the transmission grids;
  • operational codes governing how the pan-European electricity systems are operated;
  • and market codes facilitating and harmonising electricity trading across European borders.[17][29]

The drafting and adoption process of network codes is defined by the Third Package. ACER develops a framework guideline setting the policy choices for each code. On this basis, the codes are drafted by ENTSO-E in consultation with stakeholders. After ACER’s opinion and recommendation for adoption, each code is submitted to the European Commission for approval through the Comitology process, i.e., to be voted on by Member State representatives and thus to become EU law, directly binding and implemented across all Member States.[17]

Transparency Platform (TP)[edit]

ENTSO-E’s Central Information Transparency Platform[30] provides free access to fundamental data and information on pan-European wholesale energy generation, transmission, and consumption.[31]

Research, development, and innovation (RDI)[edit]

ENTSO-E’s R&D Roadmap[32] provides the ENTSO-E vision on grid projects to be carried out by TSOs to meet EU objectives. The roadmap is supported by the annual R&D Implementation Plan,[33] which combines both top-down and bottom-up approaches in meeting the requirements of the roadmap. ENTSO-E publishes annually a R&D Monitoring Report[34] that assesses the progress of TSO-related R&D work.[17]


ENTSO-E is an international non-profit association (AISBL) established according to Belgian law. ENTSO-E is financed by its members. The TSOs contribute to the budget according to the number of countries and the population served.[17]

The highest body of ENTSO-E is the Assembly, which is composed of representatives at CEO level of all the currently 43 members. The ENTSO-E Board is elected every two years from the overall membership and through the Assembly. It includes 12 representatives. The president, vice president, and committee chairs are invited to board meetings. The board coordinates the committees and LRG work and implements Assembly decisions.[17][35]

ENTSO-E has established four specialized committees[36] composed of managers from member TSOs. Each committee leads a number of regional groups and working groups.

At the same level as the four committees, the transversal Legal & Regulatory Group[37] advises all ENTSO-E bodies on legal and regulatory issues. In addition, expert groups on data, network codes implementation, and EU affairs provide specific expertise and work products to the association.[17]

ENTSO-E’s Secretariat is based in Brussels. It is headed by the secretary-general and represents ENTSO-E to the European institutions, regulators, and stakeholders.

Organizational chart[edit]

Position Name
President of the Assembly Hervé Laffaye
Vice-President of the Assembly Zbyněk Boldiš
Chair of the Board Joachim Vanzetta
Vice Chair of the Board Liam Ryan
Secretary General Sonya Twohig
Head of Policy, Communications and Stakeholder Management Section Christelle Verstraeten
Head of ICT Governance & Architectures Section Nicolas Richet
Head of Corporate Services Section Bertrand Macabeo
Head of Corporate Governance Section & General Counsel Florence Melchior
Head of Legal Section Ivan Taleski
Head of Market Section Zoltan Gyulay
Head of Innovation Section Norela Constantinescu
Head of System Development Section Edwin Haesen
Head of Operations Section Bruno Gouverneur
Head of ICT Solutions Section Ervis Bregu
Head of People, Talent & Culture Section Evelyne Driane

Key figures (2022)[edit]

  • 39 transmission system operators
  • 35 European countries
  • 532 million customers served
  • 312,693 kilometres (194,298 mi) of transmission lines
  • 3,174.2 TWh electricity transported
  • 423,586 GWh of electricity exchange between member TSOs
  • 1,023,721 MW net generation capacity connected to the grid[17]

See also[edit]


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  1. ^
    .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output a,.mw-parser-output a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}body:not(.skin-timeless):not(.skin-minerva) .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-size:contain}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#2C882D;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit} .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F} .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error, .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397}@media(prefers-color-scheme:dark){ .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error, .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{color:#f8a397} .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{color:#18911F}}ENTSO-E. “ENTSO-E official mandates”. European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity. Brussels, Belgium. Retrieved 14 February 2022. Page not dated.
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  7. ^ a b “Inquiry pursuant to Article 17 of Regulation (EC) No 1/2003”. European Commission. 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
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  9. ^ “Energising Europe – a real market with secure supply (Third legislative package)”. European Commission. Archived from the original on 8 April 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
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  11. ^ “Market legislation – Energy – European Commission”. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
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  13. ^ 12 February 2021 EC Notice to Stakeholders on the Withdrawal of the UK and EU rules in the field of the Internal Energy Market.
  14. ^ “ENTSO-E welcomes Ukrenergo as Observer Member”. Archived from the original on 17 October 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  15. ^ “International Organizations”. Archived from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  16. ^ “New Observer Membership Agreement formalised with TEİAŞ”. Archived from the original on 21 December 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
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  18. ^ “REGULATION (EC) No 714/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL”. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
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    European Commission (15 June 2013). “Commission Regulation (EU) No 543/2013 of 14 June 2013 on submission and publication of data in electricity markets and amending Annex I to Regulation (EC) No 714/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council (text with EEA relevance)”. Official Journal of the European Union. Vol. L 163. pp. 1–12. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
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  27. ^ “Seasonal Outlooks”. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  28. ^ “European Resource Adequacy Assessment”. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
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  30. ^ “ENTSO-E Transparency Platform”. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
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  33. ^ “R&D Implementation Plan 2016–2018”. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  34. ^ “R&D Monitoring Report 2015”. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  35. ^ “ENTSO-E Governance”. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  36. ^ “ENTSO-E Working Committees”. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  37. ^ “Legal and Regulatory Group (LRG)”. Retrieved 1 December 2016.

External links[edit]


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